RAPID REVIEW NEUROSCIENCE PDF
Audiobook Rapid Review Neuroscience, 1e Kindle ready Download here: https:/ /pixia-club.info?book= Get the most from your study time and experience a realistic USMLE simulation! These new additions to the Rapid Review Series - highly rated in the First Aid. Here is the best location to get Rapid Review Neuroscience Pdf by pixia-club.info Studio absolutely free. Everybody allows to read online and.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|ePub File Size:||21.57 MB|
|PDF File Size:||8.75 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
We provide one of the most ideal publication qualified Rapid Review Neuroscience Pdf by pixia-club.info Studio It is completely free both. Rapid Review Neuroscience, 1e. Format: Paperback. Language: 1. Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub. Size: MB. Downloadable formats: PDF. Rapid review neuroscience pdf. sure you might be too. The Surface2 begs to be outputted to a external monitor. The family had moved to Florida in June from.
Given that drug poisoning is the cause for a large portion of patients in a coma, hospitals first test all comatose patients by observing pupil size and eye movement, through the vestibular-ocular reflex.
Oxygen deprivation in the brain , also known as hypoxia , causes sodium and calcium from outside of the neurons to decrease and intracellular calcium to increase, which harms neuron communication.
Twenty percent of comatose states result from the side effects of a stroke. An ischemic stroke , brain hemorrhage , or tumor may cause restriction of blood flow.
Lack of blood to cells in the brain prevent oxygen from getting to the neurons, and consequently causes cells to become disrupted and die. As brain cells die, brain tissue continues to deteriorate, which may affect the functioning of the ARAS.
Effect on cerebral cortex and reticular activating system[ edit ] Injury to either or both of the cerebral cortex or the Reticular Activating System RAS is sufficient to cause a patient to experience a coma. The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain , in humans and other mammals.
White matter is responsible for perception , relay of the sensory input via the thalamic pathway, and many other neurological functions, including complex thinking. The RAS, on the other hand, is a more primitive structure in the brainstem which includes the reticular formation RF. The RAS has two tracts, the ascending and descending tract. The ascending track, or ascending reticular activating system ARAS , is made up of a system of acetylcholine-producing neurons, and works to arouse and wake up the brain.
Arousal of the brain begins from the RF, through the thalamus , and then finally to the cerebral cortex. Mode of onset[ edit ] The severity and mode of onset of coma depends on the underlying cause.
Neuroscience insights improve neurorehabilitation of poststroke aphasia.
For instance, severe hypoglycemia low blood sugar or hypercapnia increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood initially cause mild agitation and confusion, but progress to obtundation , stupor, and finally, complete unconsciousness. In contrast, coma resulting from a severe traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid hemorrhage can be instantaneous. The mode of onset may therefore be indicative of the underlying cause.
As such, after gaining stabilization of the patient's airways, breathing and circulation the basic ABC s various diagnostic tests, such as physical examinations and imaging tools CAT scan , MRI , etc. Overview of diagnostic steps[ edit ] When an unconscious patient enters a hospital, the hospital utilizes a series of diagnostic steps to identify the cause of unconsciousness.
According to Young,  the following steps should be taken when dealing with a patient possibly in a coma: Perform a general examination and medical history check Make sure the patient is in an actual comatose state and is not in locked-in state or experiencing psychogenic unresponsiveness.
Rapid Review Neuroscience, 1e
Patients with locked-in syndrome present with voluntary movement their eyes, whereas patients suffering from psychogenic comas , demonstrate active resistance to passive opening of the eyelids, with the eyelids closing abruptly and completely when the lifted upper eyelid is released rather than slowly, asymmetrically and incompletely as seen in comas due to organic causes.
More elaborate scales, such as the Glasgow Coma Scale , quantify an individual's reactions such as eye opening, movement and verbal response in order to indicate their extent of brain injury. The patient's score can vary from a score of 3 indicating severe brain injury and death to 15 indicating mild or no brain injury.
In those with deep unconsciousness, there is a risk of asphyxiation as the control over the muscles in the face and throat is diminished. As a result, those presenting to a hospital with coma are typically assessed for this risk " airway management ".
If the risk of asphyxiation is deemed high, doctors may use various devices such as an oropharyngeal airway , nasopharyngeal airway or endotracheal tube to safeguard the airway. Enter your user name and password to log in. If you have not registered yet, click 'Not yet registered? Enter your first name, last name and e-mail address, then click 'Submit'.
You will receive your user name and password by e-mail. Follow prompts online. Please note that the figures and tables should be submitted as separate items, not being included in manuscripts. After all items are attached, click 'Build PDF for my approval'. The submission tool will generate a PDF file to be used for the reviewing process. You will receive an e-mail which notes that your PDF has been built. You have to approve the PDF to complete your submission.
Then you will receive confirmation of your submission, and further progress of your paper at every stage of its review period thereafter, via e-mail. The Editors reserve the right to choose different referees from the ones suggested. Additional information Associate Editors and Section Editors will pre-review manuscripts and, in consultation with the Editor-in-Chief, reserve the right to return a manuscript to the author s without further review.
Peer review All contributions will be initially ssessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper.
The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review. Use of word processing software It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible.
Rapid Review Neuroscience
Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row.
If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier.
Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor. Article structure Manuscripts, in English, must be in double-spaced typing on pages of uniform size preferably A4 or 8. Subdivision As a rule, papers should be divided into sections headed by a caption, e.
Introduction State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Materials and methods Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher.
Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described. Results Results should be clear and concise. Discussion This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate.
Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Conclusions The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
Glossary Please supply, as a separate list, the definitions of field-specific terms used in your article. Appendices If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Please clearly indicate the given name s and family name s of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration.
Present the authors' affiliation addresses where the actual work was done below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address.
Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication.
This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' or 'Permanent address' may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
The total number of pages, figures and tables being submitted should also be indicated on this page.
Highlights Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system.
Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point. You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Abstract A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state in less than words words in the case of Short Communications and Technical Notes the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions and should be written as a single paragraph without section headings.
An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author s and year s. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. Graphical abstract Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article.
The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site. Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
Keywords Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts avoid, for example, "and", "of". They may be words or phrases that do not appear in the title.
Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.
These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Abbreviations Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article.Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail, removing the need for a paper trail.
This study will provide cutting edge treatment of stroke and disorders of the head, neck, and spine through minimally invasive imaging guided techniques. The layout of the material is extremely conducive in acting as a study aid.
To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check. The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts in which there is any question as to the appropriate and ethical use of human or animal subjects.
Terry Schiavo case in the US recently , and the relationship to one of the major philosophical, sociological, political, and religious questions of humankind , source: It should be easy to evaluate these vitals quickly to gain insight into a patient's metabolism, fluid status, heart function, vascular integrity, and tissue oxygenation. Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.
It may help us to understand how the healthy brain works, how to keep it healthy, and what happens when the brain is diseased or dysfunctional.