PMT NOTES PDF
WhatsApp + pmtcorner[email protected] All pdf contains high quality handwritten notes from best coaching institutes of kota. PMT important notes, prepare and revise with PMT notes, important tips, videos, formula sheets, practice tests, previous year papers. For each of the exam boards below, there are revision notes, factsheets, questions from past exam papers separated by topic and videos.
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Download Allen Kota Handbook for IIT | Physics Handbook pdf | Chemistry Handbook pdf | Mathematics Handbook pdf. Get free NEET study material, NEET notes for Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, along with NEET practice questions for every subject, NEET. sir ji apka blog bahut acha he isne meri stady me bahut madat ki me chahta hu msc zoology vmou ke liye bhi hindi version me notes uplabdh kar vave sir ji.
The addition of 3D color printers enables accurate miniaturization of these objects, with applications across many industries and professions. For scanner apps, the scan quality is highly dependent on the quality of the phone camera and on the framing chosen by the user of the app. Scans must virtually always be transferred from the scanner to a computer or information storage system for further processing or storage.
There are two basic issues: 1 how the scanner is physically connected to the computer and 2 how the application retrieves the information from the scanner. Direct physical connection to a computer[ edit ] The file size of a scan can be up to about megabytes for a DPI 23 x 28 cm 9"x11" slightly larger than A4 paper uncompressed bit image.
Scanned files must be transferred and stored. Scanners can generate this volume of data in a matter of seconds, making a fast connection desirable. Scanners communicate to their host computer using one of the following physical interfaces, listing roughly from slow to fast: Parallel port - Connecting through a parallel port is the slowest common transfer method. The primary advantage of the parallel port connection was economic and user skill level: it avoided adding an interface card to the computer.
The latter conforms to the IEEE standard, introduced in the mid s. During the evolution of the SCSI standard, speeds increased. The early USB 1. Possible FireWire speeds are 25, 50, and , and megabits per second, but devices may not support all speeds.
Proprietary interfaces were used on some early scanners that used a proprietary interface card rather than a standard interface. Indirect network connection to a computer[ edit ] During the early s professional flatbed scanners were available over a local computer network. This proved useful to publishers, print shops, etc. This functionality largely fell out of use as the cost of flatbed scanners reduced enough to make sharing unnecessary.
From all-in-one multi-purpose devices became available which were suitable for both small offices and consumers, with printing, scanning, copying, and fax capability in a single apparatus which can be made available to all members of a workgroup.
Battery-powered portable scanners store scans on internal memory; they can later be transferred to a computer either by direct connection, typically USB, or in some cases a memory card may be removed from the scanner and plugged into the computer. There are many different scanners, and many of those scanners use different protocols.
In order to simplify applications programming, some Applications programming interfaces "API" were developed. The API presents a uniform interface to the scanner. This means that the application does not need to know the specific details of the scanner in order to access it directly. In practice, there are often problems with an application communicating with a scanner.
Either the application or the scanner manufacturer or both may have faults in their implementation of the API. Typically, the API is implemented as a dynamically linked library. The manufacturer's part of the API is commonly called a device driver , but that designation is not strictly accurate: the API does not run in kernel mode and does not directly access the device.
Rather the scanner API library translates application requests into hardware requests. This allows batch scans and transparent network access without any special support from the device driver. TWAIN is used by most scanners.
Originally used for low-end and home-use equipment, it is now widely used for large-volume scanning. Bundled applications[ edit ] Although no software beyond a scanning utility is a feature of any scanner, many scanners come bundled with software. Typically, in addition to the scanning utility, some type of image-editing application such as Adobe Photoshop , and optical character recognition OCR software are supplied.
OCR software converts graphical images of text into standard text that can be edited using common word-processing and text-editing software; accuracy is rarely perfect.
Output data[ edit ] Some scanners, especially those designed for scanning printed documents, only work in black-and-white but most modern scanners work in color. For the latter, the scanned result is a non-compressed RGB image, which can be transferred to a computer's memory.
The color output of different scanners is not the same due to the spectral response of their sensing elements, the nature of their light source and the correction applied by the scanning software.
While most image sensors have a linear response, the output values are usually gamma compressed. Some scanners compress and clean up the image using embedded firmware.
Once on the computer, the image can be processed with a raster graphics program such as Adobe Photoshop or the GIMP and saved on a storage device such as a hard disk. Images are usually stored on a hard disk. Optical character recognition OCR software allows a scanned image of text to be converted into editable text with reasonable accuracy, so long as the text is cleanly printed and in a typeface and size that can be read by the software.
OCR capability may be integrated into the scanning software, or the scanned image file can be processed with a separate OCR program.
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Document processing[ edit ] Document scanner Document imaging requirements differ from those of image scanning. These requirements include scanning speed, automated paper feed, and the ability to automatically scan both the front and the back of a document. On the other hand, image scanning typically requires the ability to handle fragile and or three dimensional objects as well as scan at a much higher resolution. Document scanners have document feeders , usually larger than those sometimes found on copiers or all-purpose scanners.
Scans are made at high speed, from 20 up to  or  pages per minute, often in grayscale, although many scanners support color. Many scanners can scan both sides of double-sided originals duplex operation.
Sophisticated document scanners have firmware or software that cleans up scans of text as they are produced, eliminating accidental marks and sharpening type; this would be unacceptable for photographic work, where marks cannot reliably be distinguished from desired fine detail.
Files created are compressed as they are made. The resolution used is usually from to dpi , although the hardware may be capable of  or higher resolution; this produces images of text good enough to read and for optical character recognition OCR , without the higher demands on storage space required by higher-resolution images.
Document scans are often processed using OCR technology to create editable and searchable files. Lossy JPEG compression, which is very efficient for pictures, is undesirable for text documents, as slanted straight edges take on a jagged appearance, and solid black or other color text on a light background compresses well with lossless compression formats. While paper feeding and scanning can be done automatically and quickly, preparation and indexing are necessary and require much work by humans.
Preparation involves manually inspecting the papers to be scanned and making sure that they are in order, unfolded, without staples or anything else that might jam the scanner. Indexing involves associating relevant keywords to files so that they can be retrieved by content.
This process can sometimes be automated to some extent, but it often requires manual labour performed by data-entry clerks. One common practice is the use of barcode -recognition technology: during preparation, barcode sheets with folder names or index information are inserted into the document files, folders, and document groups.
Using automatic batch scanning, the documents are saved into appropriate folders, and an index is created for integration into document-management systems.
A specialized form of document scanning is book scanning. Technical difficulties arise from the books usually being bound and sometimes fragile and irreplaceable, but some manufacturers have developed specialized machinery to deal with this. Often special robotic mechanisms are used to automate the page turning and scanning process. Document camera scanners[ edit ] sceyeX document camera. Another category of document scanner is the document camera.
Capturing images on document cameras differs from that of flatbed and Automatic document feeder ADF scanners in that there are no moving parts required to scan the object. Document cameras capture the whole document or object in one step, usually instantly.
Please someone suggest me how should I prepare for biology. My biology is very weak. Unknown 5 months ago. Please upload the leftover notes of biology ….. Rohan 5 months ago.
Unknown 6 months ago. Debjit 6 months ago. Unknown 7 months ago. Sir could u plzz upload notes of biotech both the chs asap….. Rahul sonarthi ratlam 7 months ago. Satish Kumar singh 7 months ago. Vivek Kumar 8 months ago. Shri Shantanu Dutta 8 months ago. Admin 8 months ago. Check Bookmark inside pdf file…the same contains mole concept also.
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Vijay 1 year ago. Pls enable the chemistry notes it will be useful for aspirants pls do it in quick manner…. Alok kumar 2 years ago. Bhavuk Grover 2 years ago. Leave a reply Click here to cancel the reply Your email address will not be published. Username Password Remember Me.The egestion of faeces to the outside through the anal opening defaecation is a voluntary process and is carried out by a mass peristaltic movement.
Document scans are often processed using OCR technology to create editable and searchable files.
Reaction time is an advantage in these situations. These modifications increase the surface area enormously. The bolus further passes down through the oesophagus by successive waves of muscular contractions called peristalsis.
Pancreatic juice and bile are released through the hepato-pancreatic duct.