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Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors and Issues, 2nd 6 Globalization and Development Pierre Beaudet Introduction pdf. Paul A. Haslam, Jessica Schafer and Pierre Beaudet, eds. Introduction to Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors, Issues and. PDF | SUSAN SPRONK and others published INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL Its purpose is to introduce the student to the basics, particularly the major actors, issues, and .. Development: Approaches, Actors and Issues. Don Mills.

Introduction To International Development Approaches Actors And Issues Pdf

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Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors, and Issues. by Paul Haslam; Jessica Shafer; Pierre Beaudet. eBook: Document. English. Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors, and Issues – By Paul A. Haslam, Jessica Schafer and Pierre Beaudet. Introduction to International. Development: Approaches, Actors, and Issues. Ontario: Oxford University Press, Paul A. Haslam, Jessica Schafer, and Pierre.

This article attempts to fill this gap. It first reviews principles and practice of the Italian approach to global health and DAH. It then analyses relevant financial flows and trends, identifying main public and private actors involved in DAH, and exploring their contribution. We argue that there is a qualitative role for Italy to be plaid in the global health agenda, but economic and organizational challenges must be faced.

We conclude highlighting the need for a paradigm shift both in the overall Italian ODA governance, strategic direction and management, and in the way development cooperation is conceived. The search yielded official documents including laws, regulations, guidelines, and reports and pertinent quantitative data.

From these sites we also retrieved quantitative data concerning the Italian participation in WHO programs and global initiatives. Italy lacks an integrated aid budget covering all the aid managed by the different government departments and by regional and local authorities [ 2 ]. However, it is the Minister of Economy and Finance MEF that deals with the international financial institutions IFIs and with assessed contributions to multilateral agencies in development co-operation.

In addition to central authorities, Italian regions and autonomous provinces, have adopted laws to regulate decentralised international cooperation activities.

Five regions Emilia Romagna, Lombardia, Toscana, Umbria, Veneto have also introduced specific regulations for their health development aid and established dedicated offices within their Regional Health Departments [ 16 ].

According to the law, municipalities and other local institutions, including local Health Authorities Aziende Sanitarie Locali, ASL , are allowed allocating a limited portion of their annual budget to international cooperation initiatives [ 17 ]. Since the mid s Decentralized Cooperation became distinctive feature of the Italian Cooperation with the objective of creating and consolidating long-term cultural, technical and economic partnerships between local communities as a tool for promoting human development.

The partnership between local communities, the notion of territory area of jurisdiction of a local authority , civil society seen as protagonist cf.

World Bank seeing it solely as beneficiary and the promotion of consortia between local actors, represented a peculiarity of the Italian experience and were summarized in official guidelines [ 4 , 7 ]. However, the lack of any mechanism to ensure policies are coherent with development objectives, make institutional co-ordination and monitoring difficult.

Yet, at the same time, we should recognize GDP per capita is an extremely useful way of the possibility for creativity in discursive practice comparing levels of development.

It also gives us and search for ways in which language can be a force the most widely used measure of how countries for transformation Wood, GDP growth rates the percentage are fully determined by those who believe themselves change in national income between any two years to be their architects.

Instead, we need to recognize are like the Academy Awards of the developing the agency exercised by those who have responded world, clearly indicating which economies have been to, reacted to, and resisted being the objects of performing in terms of adding wealth and which development Crush, However, growth rates in developing countries, where the economy might be based on a Although vast diversity exists in the standards of living few exported products or resources, are very volatile between, among, and within developing countries— and may be high one year and low the next.

Different approaches but these rates are more stable over time. In , he argues, represents aspiration for betterment. This approach was most common during the increases in productivity in agriculture, natural s and s under the influence of theories such resource extraction, or industrialization.

GDP per capita figures petrochemicals. This gives an average society in such a way that most people would benefit. Although a the poor. Poverty is always eliminated more quickly good indicator of the degree of industrialization, GDP when GDP growth is combined with improvements tells us relatively little about the extent of poverty— greater equality in the distribution of income.

It is possible for countries Latin America, although an upper-middle-income to grow rapidly in GDP per capita but for only the area of the developing world, is also the region with richest segments of society to benefit.

In this respect, the most unequal distribution of income. This means development cannot be as simple as GDP growth, that the super-rich and the super-poor coexist in the because growth does not necessarily reduce poverty. Brazil, one of the most from the overall growth of the economy, we need to unequal countries in the world, has European-trained include another concept: The share of national income appropriated that wealth is owned by the rich, and how much the by the richest 20 per cent and that appropriated poorest earn in comparison to the wealthiest.

Indeed, by the poorest 20 per cent hardly changed over income inequality is the direct link between GDP per the — period, despite significant growth capita and the number of people living in poverty. Income inequality can be measured in two ways: In the top quintile took home almost 62 per a comparison of the income earned by different cent of the national income while the bottom strata of the population and the Gini coefficient.

The degree Income inequality is often evaluated by dividing the of inequality between the top 10 per cent and the population into five or ten equally populous strata, bottom 10 per cent is even more pronounced: Table 1.

A standard comparison is little changed in regard to income distribution over between the earnings of the wealthiest 20 per cent the year period from to , yet it also of the population and the poorest 40 per cent the shows reason for hope. In the —7 period the ninth and tenth deciles compared to the first to latest date for which there are figures , the Brazilian fourth deciles. However, the Gini coefficient is the government made a concerted attempt to channel most commonly used measure of income inequality.

This means that high GDP growth is not 4 In Latin America, for example, this Source: World Bank, World databank: African descent.

Poverty, however, Seers, When inequality becomes part is a difficult concept to define. It is usually defined of a national culture, it undermines the broad and as an extremely low level of income. For example, diffuse social trust, what Robert Putnam, among the World Bank distinguishes between absolute and others, has called social capital Fukuyama, , moderate poverty in much of its work.

Absolute Putnam, Social capital refers to the extent poverty refers to being below the minimum level to which individuals are willing to co-operate in of income required for physical survival.

Public parity—that is, adjusted for the buying power of a opinion polling in highly unequal societies such US dollar in the local market. Gated communities and barred windows are Moderate poverty is typically considered to be an commonplace. Although inequality is a common feature of most In the s, however, American sociologists such developing countries, it is very difficult to explain as Talcott Parsons and Kenneth Clark, addressing why this should be so in the first place.

There are poverty and in particular the status of African many possible reasons, some of which are discussed Americans in US society, began to develop the in more detail in subsequent chapters. At least three concepts of relative poverty and social exclusion. First, the impact of Relative poverty refers to a kind of poverty that does colonial rule or neo-colonial economic relations may not threaten daily survival but in which an individual have forged or consolidated unequal social relations may not have the income necessary to fully participate based on slavery, feudalism, and landownership in his or her society Thomas, One may well imagine how an individual Chapters 2 and 3.

INTS100: Introduction to International Studies

Second, the characteristics of late without computer access and knowledge would be industrialization—that is, the use of inappropriate seriously hampered in terms of his or her ability to capital-intensive technology—reduce the employment access important information and even do basic tasks potential of GDP growth see Chapters 7 and Third, such as looking for employment.

The poverty we refer inadequate or non-existent social safety nets and to in developed countries is almost exclusively, even regressive taxation systems prevent the redistribution for the very poorest, an issue of relative rather than of national income towards the poor and middle absolute or even moderate poverty.

The good news is that although discussed in greater detail in Chapter Targeted social reveals that poverty is not just about income levels; programs have reduced the incidence of poverty while it also has social, political, psychological, and moral leaving inequality untouched.

In other words, although adequate income to cover the needs of basic survival; GDP per capita is a good indicator of poverty as employment including any non-paid social role income deprivation, it does not tell the whole that contributes to self-respect and development of story. Consequently, alleviating poverty or doing the personality ; improvement in the distribution of development also must be much more complicated income; an education, particularly literacy; political than simply spurring economic growth or even participation; and national autonomy belonging to reducing poverty.

Three thinkers in particular have a politically and economically independent nation. These ideas were higher incomes. Furthermore, male African Americans further developed in the work of Nobel Prize- from Harlem were even worse off than the average, winning economist Amartya Sen, who argues that being less likely to reach the age of 40 than men in development should not be seen simply as rising Bangladesh ibid.

It is popular book, or the capabilities approach. In this respect, freedoms comes through access to government services. The inverse may include a lack of access to health and welfare of this observation is that sometimes low income does services, gender or ethnic discrimination, and not reflect the opportunities people have.

This should be limits on basic political, civic, and economic rights. In no way does this income level reflect the real or the opportunities that people have inability to capabilities and freedoms commanded by students or feed themselves, receive an education, access health the opportunities before them. In such as civil and political rights and government defence of GDP per capita, it is easily measured, services —can improve their ability to make choices and levels of absolute and moderate poverty can be that they value.

At the same time, an increased clearly established according to certain income cut- ability to make choices feeds back to build their off points. Some authors have expand the choices of those who had participated in criticized such an approach as being impossible to the political process by voting.

Nonetheless, efforts have freedom enhances the ability of people to help been made to construct measures that better capture themselves and also to influence the world, and these the multi-dimensional aspects of development. The Human Development Index is a composite measure of three equally weighted factors: In this respect, the index recognizes that being and poverty. It may seem obvious, therefore, income levels are important but that other factors that the negative consequences of poverty for human also are significant in human development.

One health and well-being are on the whole a bad thing, may view the education and longevity measures as both within your own country and in other countries proxies that take account of the various government throughout the world. You probably also believe that services that Seers, Goulet, and Sen see as crucial it follows logically from this that we should take to expanding the range of individual choice. In addition, even among those who do accept more are considered highly developed, while those that action should be taken to address global poverty, with a score of 0.

In the Human Development how we can justify action on global poverty and what Report, classifications are given for countries in the actions are justified. Several influential approaches to following categories: Following an examination of these with HDI values ranging on a scale between 0 and 1. Even Norway, holding the or when taking part in international development number one spot on the HDI, does not do as well in policy-making or practice.

Do our moral duties extend beyond spot but has slightly higher life expectancy and a GDP our families, neighbours, and fellow citizens? Perhaps Over the course of the twentieth century, most most importantly, the HDI has embedded the idea Western societies developed systems of social of poverty and development as a multi-dimensional support to ensure that no citizen would be left to phenomenon in the modern approach to development.

Morally, one argument for the have entered the mainstream. The countries are grouped according to the World Bank classification system , at: There are debates practice of development call into question the validity surrounding the meaning of development, contestation of the contemporary development enterprise.

They over the best approach to achieve development, and emphasize the destructive and disciplinary power of even questions about whether it is worth pursuing development in its interventions in and transformations at all see Chapter 3. However, discourse would have us believe Watts, At the same time, obfuscating its negative effects on people.

Just as a body of scholarship has uncovered diverse forms. Society charged the state, therefore, defenders of Western capitalism perceived a political with providing security for all citizens through threat from the socialist alternatives to market programs such as unemployment insurance, income capitalism proposed by groups within these societies assistance, universal health care, and education.

At from the Global North. This was the beginning of the same time, geopolitical interests played a role international development. National boundaries are therefore of the South. However, while the welfare state became little or no moral importance in considerations of ubiquitous among European and North American justice. The majority of cosmopolitans also believe nations—although the interpretation of basic needs that some common values apply across humanity and rights of citizens has varied substantially among and some responsibilities exist towards all humanity these nations see Esping-Andersen, —a global Dower, , cited in Gasper, Libertarians, for Nonetheless, many people believe that the principles example, also accord low value to national boundaries of basic human rights and security should apply to but do not believe in strong duties towards others all humans, regardless of where they happen to live individually, nationally, or globally see below for in the world.

Thus, we have moved from a time when further discussion of libertarianism. Within this body of cosmopolitan thinking, Charles Jones identifies three main types of justification for global redistributive justice: These three views are outlined in Box 1. Justifications for rights-based Contractarian philosophy holds that moral norms are morality are complex, but they include the idea that justified according to the idea of a contract or mutual we have rights because we have interests or because agreement as in the political philosophy of Thomas of our status.

Hobbes, John Locke, and, most recently, John Rawls. Box 1. He supports this argument in several ways. Singer therefore proposes that although we wealth they have inherited. Similar premises underlie should accept the stringent moral duty as required by the argument by Walter Rodney , an influential principles of justice, we could promote a more feasible Guyanese writer, that international development and policy for people actually to follow.

For example, assistance are simply a way to give back what already everyone could be encouraged perhaps required to had been taken from the Global South. But, Singer argues, prevent needless and extreme suffering regardless are we not in the same position, morally speaking, of national boundaries.

Imagine you are walking to when we choose to spend money on frivolous or work and see a small child fall into a pond. She is in luxurious items that are no more important than the danger of drowning. You could easily walk into the muddy shoes in the example, rather than use that pond and save her without endangering your own money to prevent someone from dying of starvation safety, but you would get your clothing and shoes for example, through donation to humanitarian muddy.

You would have to go home and change, agencies that have proven competence in delivering causing you to be late for work, and your shoes might aid to the starving and needy? And, he argues, this be ruined. Our moral intuition tells us that you should is clearly true even if that starvation is occurring in clearly put aside those minor inconveniences in order another part of the world that we may never visit. Furthermore, it more important, morally speaking, than a human life should make no moral difference whether this little or many of them?

Furthermore, without the basic could be avoided under a different and practically right to subsistence, a person cannot exercise any possible institutional arrangement. He argues other rights, including those that have often been that this is clearly the case with the current global taken as fundamental in Western liberal democratic economic order, which preserves the advantages societies, such as freedom of expression or other of the wealthy and allows serious and avoidable political rights.

By preserving the current system, the rights-bearer to attain the right. Not all states, we including citizens of wealthy nations, our however, are currently in a position to ensure the governments, the corporations they run or support, right to subsistence for all of their citizens because and their participation in international institutions some lack sufficient resources. This means that states are contributing to the causes of global poverty.

Thus, with more than they need to ensure the fulfillment according to Pogge, our obligation to address world of the right to subsistence should redistribute wealth poverty is based at least in part on our duty not to and resources to states unable either to provide harm others. Hence, a rights-based approach to within poor countries also are responsible for justice also can provide moral justification for global problems of poverty, such as the greed of ruling redistribution of wealth in order to protect and aid all elites, corruption, and poor planning?

Pogge argues peoples in achieving the right to subsistence. He points to the asymmetrical Redistributive Justice rules of the World Trade Organization WTO that The two main ethical positions opposed to benefit wealthy countries and disadvantage poorer cosmopolitan approaches to redistributive global ones ibid.

Instead, communitarians believe that causes of poverty themselves by removing their political and social community is morally relevant— corrupt leaders from power. In addition, some communitarians suggest institutions to protect and aid those whose basic that we are justified in giving moral preference to needs are not being met through contemporary the needs of our fellow citizens, because membership global market economies see Chapter If we recognize that we can principally food, shelter, and a level of health legitimately treat our family and close relationships required for basic human functioning is based on with special care and attention and we believe that the recognition that these are universally shared citizenship is a similar kind of kinship relation, human needs and, therefore, are morally important.

Individuals should be free to give donations those outside the boundaries. In non-philosophical development. If we look at statements by actors and language, communitarian positions are sometimes institutions in national and international arenas, referred to as nationalist Gasper, In many suggest a widespread belief in universal human international relations theory, the skeptical realist rights and transnational duties to protect and assist or international skeptic positions also argue for the people regardless of where they live in the world.

These Libertarian philosophy is best exemplified in the statements suggest a wide acceptance of a rights- work of Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State and Utopia based and morally principled approach to global , and it has been influential among a number of justice.

He famously characterized achieve. A look state of affairs is just on the basis of outcomes—i. Development assistance is frequently allocated have a right to that wealth and to dispose of it as if it were simply a matter for voluntary individual precisely as they wish.

Italy’s contribution to global health: the need for a paradigm shift

Thus, the simple existence or national conscience and goodwill if not purely a of even extreme inequality of wealth and poverty matter of self-interest rather than a moral obligation. In other words, It is clear, then, that moral justifications are highly development ethics subordinates the goals what we relevant to principles and practices of international want to do to the means of development how we development.

It is equally clear that we, as individuals do it. In the rest of this chapter, we turn to ethical and as nations, appear to act in ways that are not dilemmas related to positionality and lifestyle that always consistent with what we profess to believe is development practitioners and researchers may morally just.

As you read this book, you should find expect to face in the field. As they have cars with drivers, accommodation with Des Gasper Beyond the novelty, these changes better understand their situation, structure their also indicate that because of education, country of choices, avoid debilitating degrees of doubt and guilt, origin, the agency represented, and perhaps ethnic and move forward.

This situation is captured by the idea of positionality, Researchers tend to be principally concerned with the which suggests that researchers or development issues of informed consent and respect for the privacy practitioners must be aware of and reflect upon the and confidentiality of those who participate in their social and power relationships in which they are studies, the implications of relationships of reciprocity embedded, particularly their position relative to with key local informants what researchers owe the local people with whom they interact Binns, them, if anything , and the benefits of the research for These based on class, literacy, ethnicity, gender, and so ethical responsibilities are salient for practitioners as on Brydon, Choices made by researchers well, although informed consent usually translates as and practitioners—such as the social and political ensuring that participation is willing and voluntary background of principal assistants and translators, the in the development project at hand.

The resources they introduce appraisal may be viewed as good ethical guidelines into poor communities and safe havens such as for the development practitioner: An anthropologist working in Guinea-Bissau wrote: In short we became intertwined are and whose interests they represent. How a project is carried out will affect More Listening and Less Talking the local balance of power in ways that are difficult The personal modesty noted above also applies to foresee.

Taking positionality seriously, therefore, to the broader issue of how development actors means that the development practitioner needs to engage with local people and communities. In other words, aid works are supposed to assist.

Professionalism and advanced when people work with other people as equals.

Likewise, participating in local to leave them powerless Klitgaard, , cited in cultural events, observing local standards of dress and Gasper, Tony great sense of modesty as compared to the kind of Binns offers some words of advice that apply equally intellectual arrogance that was prevalent in the past. Above all, you should respect to explain reality and to change it in a pro-people local customs and make a determined effort to way.

Development agencies and practitioners should be unobtrusive, polite, and deferential. At the not assume they can solve local problems from the end of your fieldwork you should report back outside when solutions exist at the local level, which on your findings to the community, explaining is frequently the case. This growing self-critical how you intend to follow up the fieldwork after attitude among contemporary researchers and you have left.

Binns, Will he gain anything by it? Will it the foreseeable risks and inconveniences of visiting restore him to a control over his own life and destiny? We also explored and ideas in the study of international development. The examination of growth, inequality, and absolute and chapter concluded by introducing the personal ethical moderate poverty.

What concept of development do you think is most appropriate, and why? Why is inequality the crucial link between GDP per capita and the number of people living in poverty in a given country?

Why is GDP an inadequate measure of development? What dilemmas might people working in development agencies face? How should they address these dilemmas? Poverty and Development into the 21st Century.

Bell, Daniel A. Ethics in Action: Cambridge University Press. Desai, Vandana, and Robert B. Potter, eds. Doing Development Research. Gasper, Des. Mohan, Giles. Sachs, Jeffrey D. The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time. New York: Todaro, Michael P. Economic Development in the Third World, 9th edn. Addison Wesley. Gross national which plots the proportion of national income product and gross national income are measures that accruing to each segment of the population.

The Gini include GDP plus net income from abroad, such as coefficient is a ratio of the area between the curve and investments. Thus, GDP is a better measure of the a line representing total equality to the total area under activity of a national economy, that is, of domestic the line of equality.

World Bank. Crush, ed. London and New Cowen, M. Routledge, 87— Routledge, 27— Doctrines of Development. Geography in Higher Education 21, 2: London and New York: Apentiik, C. London and New in Desai and Potter Routledge, 1— Binns, T.

Desai, V. Brydon, L. Perspectives on Politics 4, 1: Code of Ethics. Futures 24, 5: Chambers, R. Princeton University Press. Chen, S. Martin, eds. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Fukuyama, F. The Social Virtues and the www. Creation of Prosperity. Free Press. Fuller, B. Growing Up Modern: The Western State Putnam, R. Making Democracy Work. Princeton, Builds Third World Schools. New York and London: Rist, G.Thanks for telling us about the problem.

Introduction to international development by Paul Haslam; Pierre Beaudet. These ethical responsibilities are power in a relationship, but well-meaning people— salient for practitioners as well, although informed such as the typical development worker or student—are consent usually translates to ensuring that partici- not always aware when they do!

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Outfit until appropriation 15, lest aliens since been over look coram overcapacity see. For example, development.

Theory and Anthropology Today 14, 6: Poverty, however, Seers, To ask other readers questions about Introduction to International Development , please sign up.

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