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Sql Server Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers Pdf

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A non clustered index is a special type of index in which the logical order of the index does not match the physical stored order of the rows on disk. The leaf node of a non clustered index does not consist of the data pages.

Instead, the leaf nodes contain index rows.

A table can have one of the following index configurations: No indexes A clustered index A clustered index and many nonclustered indexes A nonclustered index Many nonclustered indexes.

Drop database deletes the database along with the physical files, it is not possible to bring back the database unless you have a backup of the database.

When you take a database offline, you the database is not available for users, it is not deleted physically, it can be brought back online. Every table should have a primary key constraint to uniquely identify each row and only one primary key constraint can be created for each table.

The primary key constraints are used to enforce entity integrity. Properties of Sub-Query A subquery must be enclosed in the parenthesis. A query can contain more than one sub-query.


Types of Sub-Query Single-row sub-query, where the sub-query returns only one row. Multiple-row sub-query, where the sub-query returns multiple rows,. Log shipping is the process of automating the backup of database and transaction log files on a production SQL server, and then restoring them onto a standby server.

Enterprise Editions only supports log shipping. In log shipping the transaction log file from one server is automatically updated into the backup database on the other server.

If one server fails, the other server will have the same db and can be used this as the Disaster Recovery plan. The key feature of log shipping is that it will automatically backup transaction logs throughout the day and automatically restore them on the standby server at defined interval. The check constraints are used to enforce domain integrity. Scheduled tasks let user automate processes that run on regular or predictable cycles.

User can schedule administrative tasks, such as cube processing, to run during times of slow business activity.

User can also determine the order in which tasks run by creating job steps within a SQL Server Agent job. Job steps give user control over flow of execution. If one job fails, user can configure SQL Server Agent to continue to run the remaining tasks or to stop execution.

What are the advantages of using Stored Procedures? Stored procedure can reduced network traffic and latency, boosting application performance.

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Stored procedures help promote code reuse. Stored procedures can encapsulate logic. You can change stored procedure code without affecting clients. What is a table called, if it has neither Cluster nor Non-cluster Index?

What is it used for? Unindexed table or Heap. A heap is a table that does not have a clustered index and, therefore, the pages are not linked by pointers. The IAM pages are the only structures that link the pages in a table together. Unindexed tables are good for fast storing of data.

Many times it is better to drop all indexes from table and then do bulk of inserts and to restore those indexes after that. SQL is a language which is used to communicate with the database and this language supports operations like insertion, updation, retrieval and deletion. RDBMS is database management system which is used to maintain the data records in the tables and also indices in tables.

Relationships can be created to maintain the data in the table. Left join will return all the rows from the left table and matching rows from right table. Inner join matches the common records in two tables joined. In Inner join each record of table A Is matched with each record of Table B and the matched records are then be displayed in the resultant table.

Clustered Index — Clustered Index will reorder the number of records in a table and by default the reordering will be done on the basis of primary key as it default acts like a clustered index.

Leaf nodes will not be data pages as in clustered index instead it will have index rows, which acts like a pointer to point to root node of clustered index. Unsafe Access Sandbox: This contains untrusted codes where a user can have access to memory.

SQL is a structured query language that is used for manipulating and accessing the relational database, on the other hand, MySQL itself is a relational database that uses SQL as the standard database language. Question 21 What is the use of NVL function?

NVL function is used to convert the null value to its actual value. Question 22 What is the Cartesian product of table? The output of Cross Join is called as a Cartesian product. It returns rows combining each row from the first table with each row of the second table. Question 23 What do you mean by Subquery? Query within another query is called as Subquery. What is the difference between the 2 operating modes of Database Mirroring?

High-Performance Mode is to ensure that the Principal database run faster, by not waiting for the Mirrored database to commit the transactions.

There is a slight chance of data loss and also the Mirrored database can be lagging behind in terms being up to date with Principal database if there is a heavy load on the Mirrored Server. What is an execution plan? If this option is turned on it will display query execution plan in separate window when query is ran again. MINUS — returns all distinct rows selected by the first query but not by the second.

UNION — returns all distinct rows selected by either query. The job activity monitor displays the current status of all the jobs on the instance.

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Choose the particular job which failed, right click and choose view history from the drop down menu. The execution history of the job is displayed and you may choose the execution time if the job failed multiple times during the same day. What the different types of Replication and why are they used? For example Snapshot Replication is useful only when the data inside the tables does not change frequently and the amount of data is not too large, such as a monthly summary table or a product list table etc.

Transactional Replication would useful when maintaining a copy of a transactional table such as sales order tables etc. Can we hide the definition of a stored procedure from a use?

How can we determine what objects a user-defined function depends upon? Can one drop a column from a table?

What is Fill Factor? How SQL Server executes a statement with nested subqueries? This query passes its results to the next query and so on until it reaches the outermost query.

It is the outermost query that returns a result set.

What is Data-Warehousing? What are different Types of Join? The size of a Cartesian product result set is the number of rows in the first table multiplied by the number of rows in the second table. The common example is when company wants to combine each product with a pricing table to analyze each product at each price. Inner Join A join that displays only the rows that have a match in both joined tables is known as inner Join. This is the default type of join in the Query and View Designer.They are managed by OPEN.

Stored procedures help promote code reuse. A JOIN selects columns from 2 or more tables. What are the properties and different Types of Sub-Queries?

The performance of the view depends on how good the selected statement the view has.

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