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Authorities sometimes employ periodic throttling or restrict access to the internet for political or security reasons. In April , for example, 3G access and a phone signal was unavailable for several hours in Dong Tam commune, Hanoi, where villagers held 30 police officials and district government officials hostage for several days in a violent conflict over land. In the mobile sector, Viettel commands Smaller companies that lack the infrastructure to provide quality service and coverage, like Vietnamobile and Gmobile, struggle to compete.
Limits on Content: The authorities successfully compelled Facebook and Google to remove hundreds of accounts and thousands of YouTube videos deemed critical of the state. The government reportedly launched Force 47, a new military unit with over 10, staff to manipulate content online. Blocking and Filtering With fewer resources devoted to online content control than in China, the Vietnamese authorities have nevertheless established an effective content-filtering system.
Social media and communications apps are periodically blocked, but were otherwise available during the coverage period.
Access to Facebook and Instagram was last interrupted in May , during protests in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City against an environmental disaster caused by a steel plant owned by Formosa, a Taiwanese company.
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Demonstrators criticized Formosa for discharging toxic chemicals that led to millions of fish washing up dead along the central coast, and the government for failing to adequately respond to the crisis. The mainstream media failed to cover the rallies, which increased Facebook's importance as a means of sharing information and organizing public events see "Digital Activism".
Operators of at least three tools used to circumvent blocking reported a dramatic spike in the number of their Vietnamese users on May 15, , coinciding with reports that social media platforms were inaccessible; the platforms had likely been blocked.
In general, censorship is implemented by ISPs, rather than at the backbone or international gateway level. Specific URLs are generally identified for censorship and placed on blacklists.
Censorship frequently targets high-profile blogs or websites with many followers, as well as content considered threatening to the rule of the CPV, including political dissent, advocacy for human rights and democracy, and criticism of the government's reaction to border and maritime disputes with China. Content promoting organized religions such as Buddhism, Roman Catholicism, and the Cao Dai group, which the state considers a potential threat, is blocked to a lesser but still significant degree.
ISPs use different techniques to inform customers of their compliance with blocking orders. While some notify users when an inaccessible site has been deliberately blocked, others post an apparently benign error message.
Content Removal The CPV's Department for Culture and Ideology, the MIC, the Propaganda Committee, and various other authorities regularly instruct online outlets to remove content they perceive as problematic, through nontransparent, often verbal orders. This has led users to employ the common practice of sharing screenshots of online articles that they think are likely to be removed later, rather than sharing their links.
In February , the government tightened pressure on international companies to remove content the authorities categorized as "toxic. Meanwhile, the Vietnam-based operations of several multinational companies withdrew advertising from popular social media platforms Facebook and YouTube at the request of Vietnamese government ministries.
In , online reports of an animal welfare crisis at a safari park operated by Vingroup, one of the country's largest conglomerates, on Phu Quoc island in southern Vietnam, led to a Facebook campaign questioning the importation and treatment of wild animals.
Shortly afterward, Facebook temporarily deactivated the accounts of users who had previously discussed the issue, and a post by a Facebook page administrator asserted that they must cease posting about the case "for security reasons," according to the BBC Vietnamese service, leading observers to believe that users could face reprisals from Vingroup or its supporters.
Content removal instructions cover social as well as political content. It requires intermediaries — including those based overseas — to regulate third-party contributors in cooperation with the state, and to "eliminate or prevent information" prohibited under Article 5.
The circular also tightened procedures for registering and licensing new social media sites. Among other requirements, the person responsible for the platform must have at least a university degree. It also requires Vietnamese companies that operate general websites and social networks, including blogging platforms, to locate a server system in Vietnam and to store posted information for 90 days, and certain metadata for up to two years.
Further, it did not outline clear penalties for noncompliance. Media, Diversity, and Content Manipulation Internet content producers face a range of pressures that affect the quality of online information.
All content produced by newspapers and online news outlets must pass through in-house censorship before publication.
In weekly meetings, detailed instructions handed out by a CPV committee to editors dictate areas and themes to report on or suppress, as well as the allowed depth of coverage. These fines can be applied for offenses not serious enough to merit criminal prosecution.
The decree outlined additional fines for violations related to online commerce. These economic and social penalties, in addition to the risk of criminal prosecution, lead to a high degree of self-censorship. The unpredictable and nontransparent ways in which topics become prohibited make it difficult for users to know what might be off-limits, and bloggers and forum administrators routinely disable commenting functions to prevent controversial discussions.
The government also actively seeks to manipulate public opinion online. At the end of , General Nguyen Trong Nghia, at the CPV's national conference on propaganda, introduced Force 47, a new military unit with over 10, staff, "well qualified and loyal to the revolution," whose task is to fight "wrong, distorting opinions" online.
Young, educated Vietnamese are increasingly turning to blogs, social media, and other online news sources over state TV and radio. Some activists have tens of thousands of followers, even in the face of intensifying government pressure see "Content Removal" and "Prosecutions and Detentions for Online Activities".
Her blog has close to 20, visitors per day.
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Critics fear the law will enable further Chinese encroachment on Vietnam's territory. Violations of User Rights: Vietnam experienced a substantial crackdown against online speech, with several bloggers and activists handed severe prison sentences for their online activities.
Blogger Hoang Duc Binh was sentenced to 14 years in prison — the harshest sentence ever delivered to an activist — for his criticism of the Formosa environmental disaster.
Legal Environment The constitution, amended in , affirms the right to freedom of expression, but in practice the CPV has strict control over the media. Legislation, including internet-related decrees, the penal code, the Publishing Law, and the State Secrets Protection Ordinance, can be used to fine and imprison journalists and netizens.
The judiciary is not independent, and trials related to free expression are often brief, and apparently predetermined. Police routinely flout due process, arresting bloggers and online activists without a warrant or retaining them in custody beyond the maximum period allowed by law.
A new cybersecurity law was passed in June after this report's coverage period that imposes sweeping restrictions on freedom of expression online. Social media companies will be required to remove content upon request from the authorities within one day.
Companies that collect user data will also be subject to new data localization requirements, which may enable the authorities to infringe on the privacy rights of citizens with greater ease see "Surveillance, Privacy, and Anonymity". However, since then high schools have computerized rapid , school acquired about million computers with schools having least computer. Computer ftware shorten learning process illustrating real world applications abstract theories.
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Freedom on the Net 2018 - Vietnam
Teachers banned computer. Computers used teaching there were computers used ching. Computerization done high Students data from computers. Teachers computer teachi aid. Teachers store data computer.
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