NETWORKING NOTES IN PDF FORMAT
1 An Overview of Networks. 13 archive of html files, pixia-club.info format, and in other formats as may prove useful. Note that . Progress Notes. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected . and formats of the messages exchanged, and the semantic, which specifies. Computer Networking: Principles, Protocols, and Practice was written by Dr. Olivier . Furthermore, the documents that define almost all of the Internet protocols.
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Institute (SRI), and the University of Utah, were connected via the IMPs to form a network. Software called the Network Control Protocol (NCP) provided. In this chapter, you'll begin by relating networks to situations and concepts controlling and providing his customers with access to resources in the form. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other processing or spreadsheet documents, can be shared across the network and.
If you look on Amazon for a hub it will be a switch.
The term frame is used for data units at the data link level and the the term packet for data units and the networking level. Hence we have Ethernet frames and IP packets.
The data frame contains data and frame management information. The concept used to describe data frames is that of a letter and envelope.
The letter is the data which is placed inside an envelope that contains the addressing information. This concept of data being inserted into an envelope is used repeatedly in data communications, and it is an important one to grasp. The envelope containing the data letter can simply be inserted into another envelope and so on. Although the Ethernet protocol alone is sufficient to get data between two nodes on an Ethernet network, it is not used on its own.
Ethernet represents what is known as a data link protocol, and for networking we need a networking protocol which in our case is IP internet protocol. It is however the IP protocol which contains the important IP addresses, which are used for connecting computers together across the Internet, and in local networks.
The diagram below illustrates how data is placed inside protocol envelopes headers. At the receiving end it is unpacked in the reverse order.
The IP address is the most important address as far as we are concerned, as it is a logical address, meaning it is assigned by us, and can be changed. Current networks use IPv4 Addresses. The IP IPv4 address is a 32 bit address and is written in dotted decimal notation and appears like this: So it is of this form: a.
When troubleshooting network problems you will need to be able to identify network addresses, and if a device has one, and whether that address is valid. If a client cannot get an IP address then some clients will auto assign an IP address. Note: Different versions of windows use different default IP addresses In either case it is unlikely to work correctly because clients with a In our street analogy they think they are on different streets.
Finding Your IP Address To find the IP address on a windows computer using ipconfig, open a command line dos prompt and type the command ipconfig at the prompt.
Local area network
The IP address here is You will also see the default gateway address This is the IP address of the Router, the term gateway is an old Unix expression that is still used. The IP address will be used to get the data packet to the final network segment. In order to deliver the packet to the final destination the MAC address of the destination computer must be known.
A protocol know as ARP address resolution protocol is used, which uses an Ethernet broadcast to query the nodes on the network.
Send me your MAC address. All nodes see the query but only the node with the destination IP address replies. IP Networks Computers and other devices can be grouped together into networks.
In the real world this is the same as houses are grouped together into streets.
To separate devices into networks a router is required. Network numbers are part of the IP address. So when you look at an IP address what you see is a number with two components.
A network component and a node component It is the job of the Subnet mask to split the IP address into the network component and the Node component device address. For my network my computer has an IP address of To find the network address you do a logical AND of the two numbers. This gives a network number of Types of protocols are: 1. HTTP 2.
FTP 3. A client is the end-user; the server is the web site. To encourage indirect or implicit use of remote computers. To transfer data reliably, and efficiently. Data can be lost in the intermediate network.
Networking Essentials Notes
TCP adds support to detect errors or lost data and to trigger retransmission until the data is correctly and completely received. IP — is responsible for moving packet of data from node to node. IP forwards each packet based on a four byte destination address the IP number. The Internet authorities assign ranges of numbers to different organizations. The organizations assign groups of their numbers to departments.
Basic Home Networking Course for Beginners
IP operates on gateway machines that move data from department to organization to region and then around the world. Telnet It is an older internet utility that lets us log on to remote computer system. It also facilitates for terminal emulation purpose. Terminal emulation means using a pc like a mainframe computer through networking. Mobile computing means that the computing device is not continuously connected to the base or central network.Novell client shells or redirectors.
D is the base memory address for the NIC. Internet network management protocol. It connects networks that are located in different regions and countries.
For my network my computer has an IP address of
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