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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ANIMALS PDF

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National Geographic Animal Encyclopedia book. Read 29 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Hey, why is that funny-looking monkey on TV. download: Macmillan Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals .. Book provides detailed descriptions of more than European ethnic and national groups. . Antarctica and the Arctic Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth's Polar .. энциклопедий на английском языке скачать бесплатно pdf. The INTERNATIONAL wildlife encyclopedia pixia-club.info - Free ebook download as the animal is frightened it erects the of killing lambs and chickens may be National Geographic June Magazine(by Rail Across the Indian Subcontinent).

From —, the chief editorship was held by the president of the National Geographic Society. Since , the magazine has been overseen by its own "editor-in-chief". The list of editors-in-chief includes three generations of the Grosvenor family between and The magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria , the Soviet Union , and Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture.

In its coverage of the Space Race , National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while largely avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup. There were also many articles in the s, 40s and 50s about the individual states and their resources, along with supplement maps of each state.

Many of these articles were written by longtime staff such as Frederick Simpich. In later years, articles became outspoken on issues such as environmental issues , deforestation , chemical pollution , global warming , and endangered species.

Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, gem, food crop, or agricultural product, or an archaeological discovery. Occasionally an entire month's issue would be devoted to a single country, past civilization, a natural resource whose future is endangered, or other theme.

In recent decades, the National Geographic Society has unveiled other magazines with different focuses. Whereas in the past, the magazine featured lengthy expositions, recent issues have shorter articles. Photography[ edit ] Color photograph of the Taj Mahal. Source: The National Geographic Magazine, March In addition to being well known for articles about scenery, history, and the most distant corners of the world, the magazine has been recognized for its book-like quality and its standard of photography.

In , GHG began building the group of staff photographers and providing them with advanced tools including the latest darkroom. So a of their bodies is of special interest.

Certain search began for either a theory to explain features give acorn worms an apparent or a missing link to bridge the gulf. The affinity with back-boned animals, the verte- discovery of a number of animals, now brates, to which group man belongs. First grouped together as the Protochordata, there is a stiffening rod. A notochord is One of the more important of these was found in the early embryos of all verte- the acorn worm. It was first discovered bv a brates, and it is around this that the back- Neapolitan fisherman, ignorant of science, bone is first laid down.

The notochord is who found fragments of a strange animal also found in primitive creatures such as the in his net and took them to a zoologist in lancelet. The presence of this structure puts Naples who, after a careful studs, was able an animal in the phylum Chordata. Acorn to recognise that here was one of the missing worms, with only a short notochord. They can reach nearly I yd in length and are so prized by hunters that the addax is now very rare.

Habitat so falls an easy prey lo man and his dogs. Addax At one time the addax extended across It it. A mounted hunter following at a closely related to the oryxes. Also known as dating from bc show addax and gentle trot will exhaust an addax alter an the screwhorn antelope, it differs from other antelopes wearing collars and tethered hour, and modern hunters in cars can most antelopes in the absence offacial to stakes. It seems also that the number of blow' one in less than ten minutes.

The glands and in the large square teeth, addax a man owned was an indicator of animal is then so exhausted that it can which are more like those of cattle. Certainly the addax hardly attempt lo defend itself. An adult male standing some 40 in. Now they are much restricted addax's haunts. Yet it was only in that parts and legs; in summer the body and becoming increasingly rare: The head are estimated at about 5, Precise details that this will be easy to put into practice.

During chances of survival adaptation to a is its. X over the nose. Between the horm is a and , in seven zoos throughout the desert habitat. The hooves are short and tuft of long black hairs, and there is a world, 33 offspring were bred. The tail is There have been two causes of this reduc- sand in the rapid journeys that are a feature short and slender, tipped with a tuft of tion. First, their habitat is being destroyed of desert animals that have to cover large hair.

Both sexes bear horns, the female's mercial projects, in addition to the destruc- Moreover, the addax is able to survive in tion of its sparse vegetation by herds of the very depths of the desert where condi- being somewhat thinner. The hortis are domestic goats. Secondly, the addax them- tions are so extreme that no other warm- like those of the oryx but curve out from selves are being killed by hunters. The horns blooded animal can survive permanently. The addax able to survive without any free water almost li3 spiral turns, may be attained.

Habits The addax's habits are not well known, owing spread and inaccessible to the thinly nature of the population. If disturbed too often thev may travel so far as to lose themselves in the more arid parts of the desert and die of starvation. In a camel patrol found addax spoor and, nearby, a fresh uninjured carcass of an addax that had apparently died thus. Sensitivity to disturbance is increased bv the addax's extreme sensory powers.

These are well developed, as in many desert animals that live far apart and that would otherwise have difficulty in locating each other. T picall. Very occasion- ally, herds of as many as have been seen. Normally the troops stay in one area, providing there is enough vegetation. Otherwise thev ma move long distances. Staple diet of grass The movements of addax are intimately related to the distribution of their food, which in turn is related to the weather.

They are most likely to be found along the northern of the tropical summer fringe rains, moving north in winter as the Medi- terranean trough system brings rain south- wards. The addax can tell where the rains have fallen by scenting from a distance where the vegetation has turned green. The staple diet is the Aristida grasses, perennials which may be green throughout the sear, reacting to humid air or rain as the weather belts pass bv.

These plants are sensitive even to a single shower of rain, sprouting and remaining green all winter. Addax are fastidious feeders, eating only certain parts of a plant. When feeding on the Aristida glasses thev crop all the blades to a level height. On the other hand the outer, dried blades of Parnicum grass, the favoured food of the southern addax, are not touched.

Thev take only the fresh green blades, pushing their heads into the middle of the clump, gripping the growing sums The shy desert living addax is now very rare because it is ruthlessly hunted, but at the San Diego zoo and breaking them off with an upward jerk addax are being bred in captivity.

Parnicum seeds are also very much favoured. They are plucked by draw- animal identified. The white antelope was ing the stalk through the mouth so that all They beat the censor the addax so any reference to a white the seeds are cleaned off. As the seeds are During the Second World War, service- antelope indicated the North African present throughout most of the year and men abroad had their letters censored. Or perhaps it was no more thin layer of mucus. It has been suggested than a kind of game, to beat the censor.

At that some of the leguminous plants eaten all events the methods and means used in by the addax secrete viscous fluids which in the attempt were numerous, diverse and turn cause the addax to secrete mucus from ingenious.

This mucus The censors were also cunning, and quite layer eases the passage of the rough vegeta- often a letter reached its destination with tion and will prevent the dry stalks from little of its contents intact.

But one piece of class Mammalia taking up water at the addax's expense. Ameri- family Bovidae Almost nothing is known about the addax's can soldiers wrote home describing a 'white genus breeding except that one young is born at a antelope'.

(PDF Download) National Geographic Animal Encyclopedia: 2500 Animals with Photos Maps and More!

The adder has a relatively stout body for a snake and a short tail. The average male is 21 in. Generally the ground colour is a shade of brown, olive, grey or cream; but black varieties in which all patterning is. The most obliterated are fairly characteristic marking is the dark. It is often possible to distinguish the. Those which are cream, dirty yellow, silvery or pale grey, or light olive, with black markings, are usually males; females are red, reddish brown or gold, with darker red or brown markings.

The throat of the male is black, or whitish with the scales spotted or edged with black; females have a yellowish-white chin sometimes tinged with red. In the British Isles it is absent from Ireland and the northern isles but is the only snake found in Scotland. It is usually to be seen in dry places such as sandy heaths, moors and the sunny slopes of hills where it often basks in the sun on hedge-banks, logs and piles of stones.

It is, however, also found in damp situations. It emerges harmless. It a smell-taste organ, picking up is arch-enemies. It is protected by its spines again when the air temperature rises above particles from the air and withdrawing them while it alternately bites and rolls up, until. The duration of hibernation depends, therefore, on climate: In Britain, adders usually hibernate for about days in October-March, depending on the weather.

Unlike many other snakes adders do not burrow but seek out crevices and holes where thev lie up for the winter. The depth at which they hibernate depends, like dura- tion, on the climate: Very often many adders will be found in one den, or hibernaculum. As many as 40 have been found coiled up together, along with a number of toads and lizards.

This massing together is a method of preventing. The come congregate in the hibernacula, to female, who is frequently waiting close at. It may be hand, accept any victorious male, if she will that the can detect the scent left from is readv, and a male will mate with an previous vears. He crawls up behind her and loops It is uncertain whether adders are noc- his coils over her bod , rubbing his chin turnal or diurnal. Their eyes are typical of which has especially sensitive skin on her nocturnal animals in that thev are rich in back until he reaches the back of her neck, the very sensitive rod cells: On the other they are fully developed, and the young are hand, despite these adaptations, adders are born coiled up in a membrane which is often active during the day.

Courtship and ruptured bv their convulsive movements. The vertical slit pupil gives the adder is. The adder's main prey is lizards, mice, voles It is shed a few days after birth. Enemies although poisonous and shrews. Young adders subsist at first The voung are born in August or Septem- Like most animals even those well capable ber and the number ranges from five to Thev are immediately the usually bite only if suddenly frightened.

Young defence, man is their chief enemy. This legend Lndoubtedlv many carnivores will take could be due to early observers cutting up adders. Foxes and badgers kill them, and an ovoviviparous mother and finding un- they have been found in the stomachs of born adders inside. Not knowing that adders pike and eels.

Surprisingly, perhaps, the hatch from the egg inside the parent they hedgehog is a great adversary of adders: Its method of killing is to bite the adder, then curl up leaving nothing but a palisade of spines for A black adder.

Adders range in colour from the snake to strike at. It repeats the process cream, through dirty yellow to silvery grey of biting and curling until the snake is dead, or olive male ; and. A I he Anglo-Saxon name adder was for the lizard will be dead within a few minutes, naedre, which became 'a nadder' or 'a or even within 30 seconds; but an adder's nedder' in Middle English. Later the n bite is rarel fatal to humans. There were was transposed, so that we now have an only seven authenticated records of fatalities adder'.

This was a these were children. While the poison A Male I left and female adders are always 'viper' was used to mean any venomous differently mlourea. England, viper and adder became synony- a while then follows to eai its dead pre mous for the one species viper also being used to describe a venomous or spiteful Dance of the adders person.

The mating period is from the end of March The two words have spread with the to early May, though it has been known to English language all over the world, being last until autumn. In the north of Europe used not only for snakes of the genus lipera. Adelie penguin Penguins arefound in Antarctica, but not the Arctic, and are not, as is often thought, restricted to the frozen land and sea.

Various species of penguin live around the coasts of South America, Africa and Australasia, usually not going far north but staying where the sea is still quite cool. The exception to this is the Peruvian penguin which can be found right along the coasts of Chile and Peru, -where a cold current oj water sweeps up towards the Equator.

The Galapagos penguin lives even on the Galapagos Islands, just on the Equator. With the emperor penguin, the Adelie is. Other species, including the chinstrap, gentoo and macaroni penguins, live around the fringes of the continent and on the islands; but then main breeding grounds are farther to the north, in sub-Antarctic and temperate latitudes.

The penguin is a flightless gregarious bird; a superb swimmer, it is completely adapted to life in water; the -wings having evolved into flippers, and the body become covered with a protective layer of blubber. Many penguins have distinctive colour- with half an inch of blubber and then the beach, but the penguins miss no chance- ing around the head, sometimes with feathers sleek and glossy.

At first the groups to steal them from any unguarded nest. A fortnight later she returns, back and throat. The eye is distin- At the rookery, which is usuallv situated on while the male goes off to break his fast of guished by a surrounding circle of a rocky headland, each penguin searches some six weeks, during which he will have u'hite that gives the bird the appearance lor its old nest, or if it is breeding lor the lost almost hall his weight.

The eggs hatch. The nests after 36 days and for the first few days the are still covered with snow, but the penguins chicks stay under their parents. The While one parent is guarding the chicks Antarctic environment males usually arrive first and they stand on the other collects food for them, returning On a September or October da on the edge the nest, fighting off other males and waiting with it stored in the crop where it is partly ot the Antarctic continent, with the sea for their mates.

They have a special display digested. Reaching the nest, the adult frozen as far as the eve can see, quite that at once intimidates other males and penguin opens its beak to the chick. The suddenly, a line of dots might appear, attracts females. It is called the 'ecstatic chick then pushes its head into the adult's moving in a straight line across the ice.

National Geographic Animal Encyclopedia

When all the penguins have arrived and Then, when a month old, thev leave the change shape. A closer inspection would the pairs have formed it can be seen that nest to gather in groups called cicelies, from show them to be Adelie penguins which each penguin sitting on its future nest is the French word for public nurseries. It have been tobogganing over the ice on then exactly the same distance from each of its was once thought that the adult penguins bellies, using their feet and flippers to neighbours.

Ibis even spreading ensures that stoodaround the creches were spei ial propel themselves. When thev reached the that thev do not interfere with each other guardians, looking after the chicks while crack the stood up to get a better view too much and that the eggs and chic ks will the parents were away feeding; but it is across it. After a bit of jostling the walk not be disturbed. Occasionallv a penguin now known that they are birds that have to the edge of the crack, waddling on their does get in the wav of its neighbours and a lost their eggs and are just standing around.

Penguins fight b pecking Once the chicks have joined the circles flippers tor balance. Eventuall the jump and by beating with their flippers. When the snow melts, nest-building can them. Instead thev lead the chicks awaj These penguins ate on their way to the begin. The male collects pebbles which he from the creche, making them run over the nesting grounds. They have spent the long remains standing on the nest site. He drops after thev have been fed.

One function of winter on the edges of the frozen seas where each pebble in turn at her feet and she uses this is to introduce the chicks to the outside there is an abundance of food and the ate them to build up a ring around her. Usuallv world, for soon thev will be leaving the now in prime ondition, their bodies padded the pebbles are laboriouslv collected from creche and taking to the sea. V Ade'lie penguins tobogganing over the ice on their bellies, using feet and flippers to propel themselves.

Crustacean feeder reaching the cold Antarctic this warm ing the penguin's attention while the other It is at first sight surprising to find colonies current, rich in nutrient salts, wells up to sneaks up behind to steal an egg. Later, the of thousands of penguins in the apparently the surface and the salts nourish myriads skuas wait around the creches for a chick to desolate wastes of the Antarctic; but in con- of minute planktonic plants.

These in turn become separated from its fellows. The trast with the land, the Antarctic seas are nourish the small animals on which the skuas are unable to kill a healthy chick but teeming with life especially with the small penguins feed.

The reason for There are no land animals in the Antarctic Again a healthy alert bird will probably be this abundance of food lies in the circula- to menace the rookeries, but a predatorv safe from them and the seals have to be tion of the oceans. Moving southwards to- sea bird, the great skua, breeds near the content with chasing weakly penguins. In it are the salts, of the penguins whenever the opportunity such as phosphates and nitrates, that are arises.

Thev wait for a penguin to neglect Selfish and callous? Sometimes a seems to credit them not only with a high surface layers sink and decompose. On pan of skuas will work together, one attract- level ot intelligence but with a selfishness. The story as usually told is that the Antarctic, who lectured widelv on his return. When a crowd of penguins are walk- Anyone seeing this, who did not have the number into the water.

If that one comes to ing across the ice and come to an obstacle, advantage of the increased knowledge of the surface again all go in, because they then for example, a wide crack in the ice, all penguins and of animal behaviour that we know there are no leopard seals about. If will stop and inspect it.

There is a good deal have today could very readily misinterpret the unfortunate one that has been ducked of jostling, and any penguin that is pushed what he had seen. They may even do away, postponing their fishing until later. It seems the story was behave like a flock of sheep and will stand genus brought back by the early Antarctic ex- around until one of them starts moving.

The best known agama is the foot-long common agama of Africa, Agama agama. The male agama s head is bright terracotta, the colour of the African earth; his body and legs are dark blue; his tail banded pale blue, white, orange and black. His skin is rough to the touch, like sandpaper, and he. Other members of the genus include the starredagama A.

Among other genera ofagamids not work are: African distribution and habits Agamas are the commonest reptiles in West Africa. Anyone who sets foot there cannot fail to notice them within the first few minutes.

The sparse scrub of the desert roofs, while in the main streets of the big cool spot in which to lie down. Fights urban rabble in their rubble slums. When two rivals catch Agamas are mainly insectivorous, chasing fusing variety of other lizards as well. Thev sight of one another, both will repeatedly their prey at speed and catching small can be seen in all sizes from five inches to raise and lower the front part of the bod insects with the tongue or snapping up a foot some sandy, some chocolate, some in an extremely comical bobbing action, as larger ones directly with the mouth.

The with green-spotted heads, some with orange if they were doing jerky press-ups. If the incisor-like front teeth are pointed like blotches on their sides. But it soon becomes contestants are equally matched they will those of insectivorous mammals. Agamas clear that they are the same species, the all quickly come to blows, lashing out at each may also eat grass, berries, seeds and the smallest being hatchlings, the middle-sizes other with their strong tails and threatening eggs of smaller lizards.

Only with open jaws. Many of the large males mature males that are dominant that is, have shortened or broken tails, the result Polygamous breeder strong enough to boss other males main- of such fights. Even the females chase and The common agama is polygamous.

The tain the bright orange-and-blue colouring. Weak or subordinate males, or any that hatchling lizards play at fighting, as kittens half a dozen or more females, in a territory have had a bad fright, are dull brown. The and puppies do. If he is successful, he puts one the thatch of huts, emerging to feed on early sun, their brilliant colours return.

If caught in of North Africa, avoiding bare sand.

After body under her. The female then raises her the open it is able to run on its hind legs. During the day the lizards are extremely with cold, but with the sunrise it absorbs brought together. As ship by running up to the male and raising snap up ants, even leaping into the air after the sun's power increases the desert agama her tail in front of him.

He then chases her flying insects. Onlv in the afternoon, when must be careful not to overheat although until she lets him catch up. At this time the vegetation becomes lush and the insect population rises, providing the female agamas with an ample supply of protein for the formation of eggs, which are then laid in clutches of up to twelve. The peppery colonel The reference to peppery colonels is not without point, for agamas have their little empires to defend.

In rural districts they are well spaced out, each male owning his country estate. By watching the different males it is easy to pick out each one's strong- hold: You can then draw fairly accurate lines marking the boundaries of these territories, and along these lines the owners battle to maintain or extend their properties.

In the towns, where agamas are thicker on the ground, the territorial instinct can lead to more frequent fighting and to situa- tions which appear to us somewhat comic. Close his head boundary threat display. The in from nose to tip of tail. Here the dull to a bungalow lived a fine male agama, bright red head is a sign of his aggressiveness. He was nicknamed Old Apoplexy Apo for short by an English family occupying the bungalow. His territory included a strip of m.

He basked much of his time beside his three wives', was often engaged in but fights with a neighbouring agama, 'Rival', who had five wives. Rival had to patrol the other bound- aries of his territory, and while he was absent Apo would rush in and grab one of his females, beating a speedy retreat when Rival returned. One day he failed to make a quick enough getaway. Rival drove him up a tree, higher and higher, until he lost sight of Apo, who faded to a dull grey as his fighting spirit ebbed.

But Rival, after descending the tree, waited at the base lor Apo. By tlie following day a third male had. In the afternoon a club-tailed male agama, choco- late in colour, entered this territory. It was Apo, who had at last escaped. Suddenly there was a muddle of flailing feet and tails.

The third lizard, caught off balance, re- heated as fast as he could. Gradually, Apo, Ii. The numerous species van in colour from tawny to blackish- brown with lighter underparts. One species has white stripes. The coarse hair is. This hair is raised when the animal is alarmed or aggressive.

The head is rather rat-like, with relatively large, pinkish ears. The agouti is about 20 in. It has five toes on the fore feet and three on the hind feet; all have hooflike claws. A close relative of the agouti is the acouchi of north-western South America Mvoprocta pratti. The principal difference is that the acouchi has a slender, white-tipped tail which is. South American distribution Agoutis are abundant in forest and wooded areas throughout Central and South V Hunted agoutis America from Mexico southwards to Brazil A Agoutis are delicate eaters, sitting back on will make for water when and Peru: They are good swimmers but forefeet, somttimes even peeling it.

Where thev are undisturbed agoutis are said to be diurnal; but they are mostly known as nocturnal animals that spend the day in holes in trees or in burrows scraped in the ground among soft limestone boulders or under the roots of trees. The burrows are shallow 'foxholes'. Each burrow is occupied by one animal or a small group probably consisting of a family. Well- worn tracks radiate from the entrance to the communal feeding ground. Reports differ as to whether agoutis are social or solitary in their way of life; dif- ferent species may well have different habits.

It seems that, although they sleep in their burrows alone or in small groups, thev gather in groups of up to to feed. It is also said that they are very shy and 'highly si rung' fighting fiercely among them- selves yet fleeing in panic at the first alarm, even jumping over cliffs en masse. Despite these conflicting characteristics fighting and fleeing agoutis are easily tamed and make affectionate pets.

Thev can live up to 20 years, but the average length of life is six vears. Sometimes thev climb trees to take green fruit. They are delicate eaters, sitting back on their haunches and holding their food in the fore feet and, if it has a tough skin, peeling it carefully with their teeth before eating it.

Thev hoard food in small stores buried near landmarks. Occasionally they eat the eggs of ground- nesting birds, and have even been seen searching for shellfish on the seashore. Three-toed runner The agouti, unlike its relatives such as the guinea pig, is adapted for fast running. This drawing of an orange rumped agouti shows its long legs and the three toes on the hind feet which give minimum con- tact with the ground and maximum leverage.

Breeding Agoutis have been described as the 'basic related to such pedestrian creatures as Litters number from two to six; in the wild diet ofSouth American carnivores' such as guinea pigs and porcupines. The reason two is the most common, in zoos, one. Some the ocelot and the jaguar. Man also finds in lies in the anatomical features that dis- species have two litters each year, in May agoutis a plentiful source of food, and they tinguish the agouti from its relatives, and October; others appear to breed all are hunted too in areas where thev are namely long, thin legs and the hoof- its the year round.

The young are born in a pests of sugar cane and banana plantations. One neat hunter's trick is to toss stones resembling the ungulates or hoofed mam- Their arrival is unusual in that the mother into the air. These, falling through the mals. The latter have become adapted for gives birth while in a squatting position. Another hunting method de- the formation of hooves the number of open, and within an hour they are nibbling pends on the agoutis' habit of making for toes being reduced by the animal's feet at vegetation.

This advanced stage of water when hard pressed. Thev are good being raised so that fewer toes touch the development is linked with the long gesta- swimmers but cannot dive. So beaters drive ground. There has been a similar trend in tion period of three months. This situation is similar is barred from the nest.

They remain with to a stage in the evolution of the horse from the parents for some weeks. Enemies Agoutis are fast runners, escaping pre- On being disturbed the agouti first freezes dators by speed rather than by hiding in to avoid being detected the young have this burrows.

They are very agile and bound class ability from birth: This it then does, scream- goats.

Leaps of 20 ft from a standing start ing shrilly and dodging obstacles with have been recorded. It is seldom found far inland, but where it does occur it is abundant and serves as food for the Eskimo and his dog. One observer has told of seeing the water courses leading from lagoons almost blocked with blackfish.

The fish itself is unpretentious. A The Alaska blackfish is about 8 in. It is. The Alaska blackfish has for many years been the subject of controversy as to its apparent ability to survive in blocks of ice. Sluggish freshwater dweller In winter the Alaska blackfish lives in deep water, perhaps as deep as 20 ft, and moves back into depths of a few inches in the spring.

In the summer it lives among dense growths of water plants and never enters clear water. It is not an active fish, although. The blackfish seems to be specialised for surviving adverse conditions. It is also tolerant of overcrowding to a far greater degree than most other fishes: First Overland fish, including that of the one vomited by both in the matter of living space and food; Journey to Polar Seas, about carp completely the Eskimo dog which few writers on the and it can exist in water with low oxygen frozen being thawed before a fire and 're- fish have failed to repeat are founded on content.

It is perhaps this hardiness which covering their animation'. This was in ; Eskimo Yet it is because the folk-lore. Vega, reported fishes living in a lagoon that have been so hard to refute. Goldfish, carp, froze to the bottom.

He later modified this tench and other species and the blackfish Food to 'apparently freezes' to the bottom. Four can be supercooled and still survive Itwas once thought that the Alaska black- years later L.

Turner, who explored under certain conditions. Thev can be on plants and worms. Later studies fish lived Alaska, spoke of fish frozen in grass baskets subjected to temperatures below freezing show that it does eat both these to a slight for weeks being brought into the house, point and, provided no ice crystals come in extent, as well as small crustaceans known thawed out and found to be as lively as contact with the body, they can be re- as water fleas; its main food, however, is ever.

He also told the story of a frozen fish Borodin found that the blackfish, suscitated. It should be em- Breeding revived by the warmth of the dog's stomach. But there were sceptics also, crystals can form. In other experiments it margin to the fins. There seems to be no and before many years had passed in- has been shown that freezing in the true elaborate courtship or parental care of the vestigators were using the newly invented sense even a part of the body of a blackfish eggs.

The fry grow quickly and the young cold stores to test them. The Russian, results in necrosis that is, the affected fishes are chestnut-brown with white bellies Borodin, was the first to be disillusioned, tissues are damaged beyond repair. Since then the American class Scholander and his associates have found The old, old, story they were unable to freeze blackfish and There an old myth that certain animals, is have them survive.

Another American, including the Alaska blackfish, can be frozen Walters, put some blackfish into a small alive in a block of ice and revived when the pond Alaska which he knew would freeze in ice is melted. As regards the blackfish. The fish did not survive. Albatross A family of birds in the petrel order.

They are the largest members of the order and among the largest offlying birds. They have goose-sized bodies with long, slender wings: The plumage is black and -white or, in a few species, brown.

In only some. This enables it to soar for hours in the oceanic air currents. The albatross nests on cliff tops where it can easily take off. The chick is guarded by its. Later both parents can be away feeding for ten days at a time. Black-browed albatross Diomedea melano- I. It has been recorded as a vagrant to the British Isles and even to the Arctic. The wandering albatross xulans can live for over 30 tears and may weigh 17 lb with a wingspan up to 12 ft. The of cliffs where the birds can take off easily.

These vagrants include were absent at the time later returned to wandering, black-browed, yellow-nosed, breed. Another visited the Bass Rock the breeding ground before then and gannet colonv off the Scottish coast in court halfheartedh. Courtship displays, and returned in The two the Equator, are possibly one of the reasons birds of a pair dance grotesquely and why so few albatrosses have been recorded awkwardly with outstretched wings to the Si in the North Atlantic, as albatrosses need a accompaniment of nasal groans and bill sustained wind for flight.

They are heavy- snapping. At the beginning of the breeding birds with comparatively small wing muscles, season several males may dance around one but they can remain airborne for long female. The surface. The albatross glides swiftly down- chick is also brooded for a short time and is wind and surfacewards, gathering speed. It When just above the water it swings sharply is then left by itself and both parents can. As it rises be away feeding at once.

They return every it loses momentum and its ground speed 10 davs to give the chick a huge meal of i. The young of creases. Its air speed, however, does not the smaller albatrosses fledge in two to three decrease so fast, as the bird is rising and so months, but larger ones may spend eight or continually meeting faster wind currents.

The parents feed them the whole sufficient height to start the downward time, so breeding is only possible in alternate glide again. Thus it progresses in a series of years. The young albatrosses leave the breeding The main hauntof albatrosses is the sub- grounds away around the world, to glide Antarctic zone where the Roaring Forties driven by the winds of the Westerly Drift.

To increase speed the albatross "close-hauls', No natural enemies partly closing its wings to reduce air resist- Albatrosses have no natural enemies, living ance without seriouslv affecting lift. Any intro- With their great wingspan and weak wing duced carnivores would, however, wreak muscles albatrosses have difficulty in taking havoc among the densely packed nests, for off. When there is enough wind especially the sitting albatross's reaction to disturb am e if there are thermal currents or eddies is just to sit tight on the nest and clack its.

It also spits oil from digested crust-. Some species are fairlv confined in their range, like Bullet's albatross in New The sailors' curse Zealand; others, like the wandering, Albatrosses have been known to sailors since black-browed and sooty albatrosses circle the davs of Magellan. Their inexpressive, the world from Tropics to Antarctic.

Mollymawk from the Dutch organisms living at the surface of the sea, Mallemok, stupid gull' , Goonev English sir h as fish, squid and crustaceans. They American for a stupid pet son. Bakadori also take small sea birds on occasions, and Japanese for 'fowl-birds'.

Sailors who have fallen bingers of wind and storms not. And I had done an hellish thing And it would work 'em woe: For all averr'd, I had kill'd the Bird That made the Breeze to blow. AThe albatross glides swiftly downwind and surfacewards, gathering speed.

When just above the water it swings sharply round into the wind and soars up. V The albatross's great wingspan is supported by relatively small muscles as it rarely flaps its wings. Their capture on baited hooks trailed from the stern of a ship often relieved the monotony of life and diet. More seriously, albatrosses were once favourite material for the 19th-century millinerv trade, the wings sometimes being cut off the still-living birds.

The North Pacific colonies bore the brunt of this fashion for plumage which, luckily, ceased before all the birds were dead.

Since the Second World War there has been another crisis for the albatross. Long-range aircraft flights have made oceanic islands necessarv as staging posts, and one such is Midway Island, the home of the Lavsan albatross. Not only are albatrosses using the United States Navy's runways for taking off, they also soar in the thermals above them, providing a serious danger to aircraft. Of the many methods that have been tried to reduce this danger, the most effective has been the bulldozing of dunes by the runways which cause the updraughts that the albatrosses need for flving.

It is not a true like the fly, housefly, but belongs to a group of insects which includes the lace- wings and ant-lions. This group reached its zenith during the times when the coal measures were being laid down, million years ago. The adult insect has a body about 1 in. When the insect is at rest the wings are folded over the back and ridged like a house roof.

They are little known, if not wholly unfamiliar to most people, but are well known to the fly fishermen as one of the flies' used for trout. Habits The adult insect flies little almost reluct- antlybut when it takes off the flight is. More usually or crawls on it rests plants or stones near a water's edge.

Its life is short merely long enough to ensure the laying of a batch of eggs. The most striking feature of the larvae is its gills, designed for breathing under water, of which there are seven pairs on the abdo- men.

They look like extra legs, each being made up of a series of five joints clothed with bristles, except that they are held upwards and backwards.

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A further un- paired gill is carried at the end of the body. The larva spends much of its time under stones and pebbles but can swim freely by undulating its body. When the oxygen content of the water is low the larva will undulate its bodv in the same way while remaining stationary, so causing a current of water to flow over the gills. This is of considerable value, especially to those species of alder-flv that live in muddy or stagnant water, which lacks the aeration of a running stream.

Life cycle In March each female lavs up to 2, brown, cigar-shaped eggs on plants or stones near water. These stand on end in flat masses, each of eggs, like commuters on a station platform. They hatch in two weeks Alder-fly un alder leaves. It never eat during its few days of life as its larva has lived and and the larvae make their way to water. The larval stage of life usually lasts for two years, during which the brown larva grows Anglers use the larvae of alder-flies as disturbed by a bird flying near, or when to 1 in.

During May and June the bait.

It serves only for reproducing and. One was seen to travel 6 yd, ap- trout. They are an important link in the dispersing the species. The male, having parently having climbed over a concrete food chain of water creatures, being con- fertilised the female, serves no othei pur- wall and through a cotoneaster thicket to an verters of protein. Plants manufacture pose except as food for other animals. It is open flower bed. Three weeks later the pupa food; small animals feed on plants; the the same with the female once she has laid leaves its cell and from it the adult insect larvae of alder-flies feed on these vegetarian her eggs.

The 'real' life of the insect is in emerges. In the alder-fly larvae, gain protein. So the larvae are pupa they are already body but free of the the main support of the fishes which the Feeding in special sheaths; as usual in pupae that is fisherman catches even though he uses the The adult does not feed. The larva is car- have to make their way to the surface adult as bait.

Those on the V The female alder fly lays her eggs in close- headform the viciousjaws; three pairs on the thoraxform legs; and those on the abdomen are gills Might can have no value for sidiary function that of spreading the pan of the adult alder-fl to take wing, they food capture, because no food is eaten.

In the case of the alder-fly this are referring to the manner in which the There is no question of migration. Con- spread could only he vei v slow.

For example. Many insects migrate some butter- order Neuroptera flying behaviour is also primitive. We have flies migrate from the Sahara to Scotland. Male alligators also roar during their quarrels in the breeding season and to attract females. Two species of reptiles which, with the It is sheer accident that two such caimans, belong to a family closely related Alligator builds a nest to the crocodiles. Alligators and similar reptiles as the alligator and the It seems that the female alligator plays the main crocodile should so early have been given crocodiles look extremely alike: The reason is defence.

The males apparently spend much that when the Spanish seamen, who had In a crocodile the teeth in the upper and of the breeding season quarrelling among lower jaws are in line, but in the alligator, presumably no knowledge of crocodiles, themselves, roaring and fighting and in- when its mouth is shut, the upper teeth first saw large reptiles in the Central juring each other.

The roaring attracts the lie outside the lower. In both animals the American rivers, they spoke of them as females to the males, as does a musky secre- lizards el largato in Spanish. The tion from glands in the male's throat and fourth lower tooth on each side is English sailors who followed later cloaca. Courtship takes place usually at perceptibly larger than the rest: The female scoops up is lost to sight when mouth is shut. The eggs are hard-shelled and num- consequently blunter. Otherwise, the banks of rivers.

The female remains by the to crocodiles. The Chinese alligator is found only in incubated by the heat of the nest's rotting North America, the other in China.

The the Yangtse River basin. Chinese alligator averages a little over The hatchling alligators peep loudly and 4 ft in length and has no webs Meat eaters the female removes the layer of vegetation between the toes. The American alligator Alligators' food changes with age. The over the nest to help them escape. Baby is much larger, with a maximum young feed on insects and on those crus- alligators are 8 in. As they grow older they eat frogs, 6 years. This length, however, is seldom attained snakes and fish; mature adults live mainly nowadays because the American alligator The biter bitten on fish but will catch muskrats and small has been killed of for the sake of its skin; mammals that go down to the water's edge Young alligators fall an easy prey to carni- whenever there is intense persecution of to drink.

They also take a certain amount vorous fish, birds and mammals, and at all an animal the larger ones are quickly of waterfowl. Very large alligators may stages of growth they are attacked and eaten. This natural predation was, in the past, just sufficient to keep the numbers of alligator populations steady.

Then came the fashion for making women's shoes, handbags and other ornamental goods of alligator skin. So long as these articles remain in fashion and command a high price, men will be prepared to risk both the imprisonment consequent on the laws passed to protect alligators and the attacks of the alligators themselves.

There is also another commercial interest, detrimental both to the alligator and to the fashion industry. For, while the fashion for skins from larger individuals shows no sign 1 of abating, a fashion for alligator pets also persists though it may have dropped in intensity since its inception. Baby alligators. Of a consign- ment of 1, hatchlings that reached New York City in , were already dead and putrefying, and many others were in a sorry condition and unlikely to survive.

In addition to persecution, land drainage has seriously affected the numbers of the American alligator. The Chinese alligator is an even worse case. Its flesh eaten and is. She on the banks of jungle rivers.

Here they have stays for 2 3 months by the nest until they hatch. Pets down the drain The fashion for alligator pets has its dis- advantages for owners as well as the alli- gator populations. Even setting aside the largest recorded lengths for the American species of 19 ft upwards, it still achieves too large a size to be convenient in the modern flat, and people who invest in an alligator often find necessary to dispose it.

Zoos have proved unable to deal with the quantitv offered them Brookfield Zoo near Chicago has built up an enormous herd from unwanted pets and it is widely said that unfortunate alligators are disposed of in such a way that they end up in the sewers.

One result of this is that every now and then, despite official denials, reports have appeared in the press to the effect that the sewers of New York are teeming with alli- gators that prey on the rats and terrorise the sewermen. Both American and their European robins are members of the thrush family, as is betrayed by the speckled breast of the young birds, but the American robin is more closely related to the song thrush, blackbird and fieldfare than to the European robin.

Indeed, the American robin was called the fieldfare by some colonists. The American robin is the size of a blackbird. The head, back, wings and tail are a dark brown or black, with black and white speckled throat and a white ring around the eyes. The breast and belly are brick-red, much darker than the breast of the European robin. American robins have 2 or 3 broods a year and Jeed their nestlings on insects.

Building the bowl- shaped nest may be done in one day's jeverish activity by the female, the male helping only by collecting material to give to her, and if she is too busy to take it he may even drop it all.

Distribution and habits side of the Atlantic, becausehas adapted it trees preferred for the second brood are The range of the American robin covers its habits to share environment. They are both commonly seen searching The nest is built by the female, with the To the north, it is found breeding just for food on lawns and they also nest in male assisting only by collecting material. While the robin is more Feeding when he arrives, he is likely to drop the lot common in deciduous woodland, it is American robins feed on a mixture of berries rather than wait to give it to her.

An exam- as little as one day's feverish activity by the The American robin is migratory, the ination of some stomach contents showed female robin. First the rough, outer umn so that the most northerly robins half being beetles and half grasshoppers. In the spring, the Hen bird works hardest into a cup-shaped mass. Then the bowl robins are among the first migrants to Throughout its range the American itself is made out of mud laid inside the.

If there is no readily available known as harbingers of spring; like cuckoos Nests are found ft from the ground, source of mud the robin makes her own, or swallows in England. The nest for the first is usually and no egg is imminent, work will stop tor wild birds as the European robin has this made in coniferous trees as the deciduous a dav or two to let the mud drv. Finallv a. It was called a robin by the early colonists because red breast reminded them of the familiar bird from 'home'.

It, too. The other bird in the picture is a female Lapland Bunting or Longspur. American robin, which is really a thrush, lining of soft grass One to six, but usually three or four, An international and that is why it is given this separate blue-green eggs are laid and are incubated feathered friend entry.

In Australia several birds are called for a fortnight by the female only. She A well-known journalist once wrote an robins. They are mainly flycatchers. One of continues brooding the chicks while they articleexplaining that the friendliness of the same kind in New Zealand, with a red are very young. Later she does so only the robin redbreast was due to the bird's breast, is named 'robin'.

There is an Indian during bad weather and at night. Sometimes habit of following large animals around to robin, and the Peking robin, commonly her mate helps feed the chicks.

The in the earth churned up by their hoofs. Jamaican tody is called 'robin', and in Enemies For the next week he was inundated with various places there are robin-chats, bush- At one time the American robin was recog- letters from readers.

Some were written robins, scrub-robins and magpie robins. Although unlikely to have provided were plainly abusive.

The best letter, little more in common than red feathers. Now, the robin enjoys protection shared the gardener's midday meal, and over its whole range. Cowbirds frequently parasitize American jump into a lake'. Domestic for the robin must have possessed the and young, and the intro- cats catch adults people of Great Britain from very early duced house-sparrows, or English sparrows times for wherever they went in the world as they are known in America, plunder the any bird with a red breast was likely to be nests.

Some vacuoles. Excess ing up to 3 mm. Protozoa means 'first animals', Amoeba proteus, the textbook amoeba, which fill with water and then collapse, and as these organisms have affinities with measuring about mm. It moves about bv extending Reproduction ferred nowadays.

As the pseudopodium into two equal parts, a process known as basicallyof an envelope containing the enlarges, the cell contents protoplasm and binary fission and taking less than an substance protoplasm. In the middle of nucleus flow into it, while the rest of the hour. It begins with the amoeba becoming cell contracts behind. Though it has no de- spherical. The nucleus divides into two, the cell, surrounded by the protoplasm, finite shape, the amoeba is not a shapeless sac and the two halves move apart and the cell is nucleus, a body which can be thought the of protoplasm, for it has a permanent hind then splits down the middle.

If an amoeba is cut acteristic pattern according to the species.It is not therefore difficult to see how stories of giant snakes could have arisen, and, once started, how this has led to unwitting or deliberate embroidery. They are also reputed to feed on other amphibians, reptiles and fish. The aard- Distribution and habits small. Then cilia minute whip-like proto- plasmic hairs pump water through open- ings in the walls of the proboscis and collar so that they swell up.

California, used in quantities as live-bait. As a unique, one-volume encyclopedia of more than 1, characters created by DC Comics, this is the book that all comic book fans have been waiting for!

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