MUTINY ON THE BOUNTY PDF
Title: Mutiny on the Bounty () Author: Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall * A Project Gutenberg Australia eBook * eBook No.: pixia-club.info Mutiny on the Bounty is the title of the novel by Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall, based on the mutiny against Lieutenant William Bligh, commanding officer of the Bounty in The novel tells PDF (tablet), pixia-club.info Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty © 1. Nordhoff suggested to Hall that they should move to the Tahitian Islands to write about the South Sea. Captain Bligh by Fletcher Christian, who then sails out in search of an uninhabited island; Men Against.
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This is the true story of the mutiny which took place on the ship Bounty in The Bounty left England at the end of with forty-four men on board, to sail. Just outside Douglas is the village of. Onchan, where on February 4 at the parish church, William Bligh, later commander of the Bounty, married Elizabeth. The true story of the mutiny on the Bounty is far more complicated than The ill-fated voyage of the Bounty would never have happened had it not been for.
Nordhoff and Hall gained critical acclaim for their trilogy, and especially for Mutiny on the Bounty, which was a Book-of-the-Month Club selection.
After the success of this trilogy, Nordhoff became disillusioned with writing, yet he continued to collaborate with Hall, turning out several more popular novels. With the completion of The High Barbaree, however, there was little doubt in either author's mind that this one would be the last book written together by the two men.
Nordhoff wanted to return to Tahiti, but he went instead to his parents' home during a fierce bout of depression, and he died there on April 11, , a broken man yearning for his paradise of Tahiti. Hall's success continued after The High Barbaree. He returned to his hometown in Iowa, and there, he worked on more novels and short essays. Writing alone once again, his work was now received far better.
Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty 2 www. He died on July 6 and was buried with Tahitian funeral rites. Byam is expected to formulate a dictionary of the Tahitian language.
The Bounty sets sail in November , and its crew is introduced to the reader. The ship makes calls on several islands during its journey to Tahiti, and, meanwhile, conditions aboard the ship begin to deteriorate. Food rots, the crew suspects Bligh of hoarding food for himself, and several men are accused of stealing. Discontent is mounting among the crew. The Bounty reaches Tahiti, and Byam begins studying the Tahitian language with the aid of some of the natives.
Members of the crew begin the task of digging up young breadfruit trees and storing them on board the ship. Many of the men form attachments to the Tahitian women, and the realization that the Bounty will soon be sailing from this idyllic life causes grumbling among the crew. Not surprisingly, three men desert before the ship leaves. The Bounty sets sail for the West Indies to deliver the trees, and early in the voyage, Bligh harasses his crew--in particular, he accuses some of them of stealing coconuts.
His officers, notably Fletcher Christian, begin grumbling over the poor treatment that they are receiving at the hands of Bligh. Accordingly, one morning, some of the crew, led by Christian, seize the ship and force Bligh, along with some of Bligh's followers, into the Bounty's launch to fend for themselves on the high seas.
Those who wish to accompany Bligh but cannot because of the already-crowded conditions in the launch are forced to remain with the mutineers aboard the Bounty.
Christian immediately begins sailing the South Sea in search of an uninhabited island, but finding none and tired of the complaints of his fellow mutineers, Christian returns to Tahiti, where he drops off those who wish to stay on the island, including Byam. Then he resumes his search for an unchartered and uninhabited island. Byam eases himself back into the idyllic life he experienced the first time on the island, and soon he marries a Tahitian princess.
A child is born to the couple, and life on Tahiti continues to be a paradise-- until an English ship drops anchor at the island. Byam rows out to meet the vessel and is immediately imprisoned as a mutineer, along with the other Englishmen on the island.
While taking the prisoners back to England to be tried for mutiny, the ship runs aground on a reef and sinks, but not before the crew and prisoners have taken refuge in the ship's smaller boats. The small boats make an open-sea journey, and finally, after several months of sailing and torturous conditions, they reach land safely. The mutineers are imprisoned aboard another vessel, which takes them back to England to await their court-martial.
The court-martial of Byam and his companions begins. Testimony is given by the men of the Bounty who made it back to England. Byam and the other men are then allowed to present their defenses. The judges Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty 3 www. Three of the six condemned men are taken to be hanged, and the other three, Byam included, are spared the rope only hours before their seemingly inevitable deaths.
Byam is spared because Robert Tinkler, a friend of Byam's aboard the Bounty, corroborates Byam's testimony at the court-martial concerning his innocence, and the other two men are saved from hanging after being pardoned by the proper British authorities. Byam returns to his family home to live out his life, but is persuaded into duty aboard another ship by the ship's captain.
The ship battles the Dutch off the coast of Spain and is victorious. Byam is promoted to captain, given his own ship, and ordered to sail to the South Sea.
Mutiny on Board HMS Bounty
While there, he sets anchor at Tahiti, where he learns that his wife is dead, but that their daughter is alive. He meets with Helen, now grown, but does not reveal his identity to her. The novel closes with Byam reviewing the events of his past and contemplating the future. Historically, there was no such person as Byam; he is simply a creation of the authors in order to dramatize the latter portion of the novel.
At the beginning of the novel, Roger is seventeen years old. He attracts the attention of Captain Bligh because of his unique ability to learn quickly and master the intricacies of foreign languages. Because the sailors of the South Sea need to learn the language prevalent in that part of the world in order to trade with the natives, the British government hires Byam to compile a dictionary of the Tahitian language and an accompanying grammar book.
Early in the novel, we discover that Byam comes from a highly respected family and that he is a man of absolute integrity. Captain William Bligh The captain of the Bounty, he is sailing to Tahiti to gather breadfruit trees, whose fruit will be used as cheap food for the slaves of the British landowners in the West Indies. Bligh's strict disciplinary measures will be directly responsible for the seizure of the Bounty by Lieutenant Fletcher Christian and his followers.
Bligh's unreasonable behavior, coupled with the crew's knowledge that he has been cheating them of their due rations, makes most of them despise him. Bligh's harsh punishments for minor offenses or, often, imagined acts make him an object of scorn and eventually cause the men to mutiny against him.
Bligh, however, is an immensely skilled navigator, and he leads his small band of survivors over a great expanse of sea to safety--seemingly, an almost impossible feat. Fletcher Christian One of the ranking officers on the Bounty, Christian comes from genteel stock and finally finds it impossible to endure all of the insults heaped upon him by Captain Bligh.
His statement that most men can be ruled by kindness and reason is ridiculed by Bligh, and when Christian is accused of theft and alleged conspiracy, he leads the others in a mutiny. Subsequently, he is declared captain of the Bounty and the leader of a band of mutineers, whom he ultimately guides to an unknown island. Throughout the novel, Christian is depicted as an honest man, one who has never done anything dishonorable. In fact, it is his strong sense of honesty which makes him burn with shame when he is accused of something dishonest; in addition, his shame is made even more intolerable because he is humiliated in front of the crew.
The movies made from this novel usually depict Christian in heroic proportions. Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty 4 www. Byam understands and empathizes with Fletcher Christian's feelings, but once the mutiny occurs, Byam does not sympathize with Christian's plight.
John Fryer Master of the Bounty. In spite of the fact that he strongly dislikes Captain Bligh, he is nevertheless loyal to the King's Navy, and he is the type of man whom Fletcher Christian will not want to have on board the Bounty after the mutiny because Christian knows that despite the fact that Fryer detests Bligh, Fryer will make every effort to retake the Bounty. His testimony at Byam's court-martial should clear the young man, but unfortunately it doesn't.
Robert Tinkler Tinkler is Mr. Fryer's brother-in-law. We first encounter him as a victim of Bligh's infamous and unjust punishments: the young man is forced to undergo severe hardships for being awake after all candles were to be extinguished and the men in their berths. While he is not Byam's closest friend, they are good comrades.
Tinkler's key scene in the novel occurs as he overhears a conversation between Byam and Christian, when Byam tells Christian, "You can count on me, sir. Thomas Hayward and John Hallet These two men are the midshipmen who could testify in Byam's behalf; instead, they want to cover up the fact that both of them cried and whimpered to stay aboard the Bounty after Christian had taken command of the ship.
Villainously, they implicate both James Morrison and Roger Byam in the mutiny. Hallet, in particular, has a grudge against Morrison and Byam because they caught him informing on his comrades, and they witnessed his disgraceful bawling during the conclusion of the mutiny.
Thomas Huggan The surgeon aboard the Bounty, the ship's "saw-bones. For example, after Tinkler is taken down from the bone- chilling mast after twenty-four hours, Huggan gives him a strong shot of rum, which allows Tinkler to return to service on deck, "none the worse for his night aloft.
David Nelson The botanist who knows of Byam's loyalty and who could have testified about Byam's wish to join Bligh in the launch. His untimely death removes a key witness for Byam. John Norton The quartermaster who could have corroborated Christian's intention to escape from the Bounty on a raft built by Norton during the night preceding the mutiny.
His death is particularly untimely since the members of the court-martial board think that it is unbelievable that a quartermaster would be doing carpenter work when there were two qualified carpenters on the ship.
The court-martial board does not believe Byam's testimony about Norton building a raft for Christian because they feel Byam chose to say this about Norton because he knew Norton to be dead and unable to substantiate Byam's testimony. Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty 5 www. The two men--captain and carpenter--despise one another, but as much as Purcell hates Bligh, he is loyal to Bligh and will have absolutely nothing to do with the mutineers, whom he calls scoundrels and outlaws.
Samuel The clerk who helps Captain Bligh cheat the men out of their fair share of rations. Next to Bligh and Purcell, he is the most detested person aboard the Bounty. James Morrison The boatswain's mate, Morrison joins Byam and Stewart in secretly planning to retake the Bounty after Christian has bound Bligh, but their plans are foiled when their guard is doubled. Morrison is unable to join Bligh in the launch because of the crowded conditions in the small boat; therefore, he is forced to remain on board the ship, along with Byam.
As a result of this act of fate, he is found guilty of mutiny, but because of extenuating circumstances aboard the Bounty, the court-martial board grants Morrison clemency. Thomas Ellison The youthful boy who has nothing to do with the mutiny, yet once it begins, he delights in taunting Bligh.
He has undergone much suffering at the hands of the tyrannical and irrational Captain Bligh, and it is understandable that he would want to offer one last taunt at Bligh. For this adolescent indiscretion, he is hanged. Captain Edwards The captain of the Pandora, whose mission is to search out, find, and return to England all of the Bounty's mutineers for trial. Edwards carries out "the letter of the law" with no concept of the "spirit of the law.
Lieutenant Parkin Captain Edwards' lieutenant aboard the Pandora; he delights in sadistically and unnecessarily punishing the prisoners. For example, while the ship is anchored in the harbor of Tahiti, amidst a plethora of fresh meat and fresh fruit, he sadistically forces the prisoners to eat moldy, hard-tack biscuits and dry meat.
Captain Montague The captain of the H. Hector, on which the accused mutineers are imprisoned. In contrast to the other captains whom we have seen in this novel, Captain Montague is humane, decent, and very considerate of their mental and physical welfare. For example, Captain Montague treats Byam as a gentleman, allowing Byam to read his letters in private, as well as take exercises in the open; in general, he treats Byam with the humanity due Byam.
After Byam is cleared of the charge of mutiny, Montague asks Byam to join him in Montague's next excursion at sea. Hamilton As the doctor aboard the Pandora, he continually intercedes for the benefit of the prisoners; he sees that their quarters are clean and that they are well fed, and he uses his influence with Captain Edwards to secure some small amenities for them.
He remains firm in his belief that Byam is innocent of mutiny, and he continues to support Byam even after Byam is convicted and sentenced to death. Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty 6 www. To Byam, Sir Joseph is one of those exceptional men who seem to be a member of a race apart from all others, the type of man who finds himself equally at home among common seamen or among the lords of the realm. In appearance, he is described as being a typical Englishman, one who could have been taken from a Dickens novel.
He is solidly built, yet seems to radiate energy and strength, and is one of the busiest and most influential men in London. Part of Sir Joseph's influence comes from his being president of the prestigious Royal Society, an organization which has influence in all spheres of English life.
Officially, Sir Joseph is anxious for Byam to undertake a journey on the Bounty in order to complete a dictionary of the Tahitian language for use in Britain's vast trading and colonization network. Throughout the trial, and afterwards, Sir Joseph remains convinced of Byam's innocence, and when Byam is condemned to die, Sir Joseph announces that no greater injustice has ever been perpetrated than that against Byam: "There has never been a more tragic miscarriage of justice in the history of His Majesty's Navy.
At the end of the novel, Sir Joseph is influential in convincing Byam to make the navy his vocation. Graham The naval officer who acts as Byam's advocate during the court-martial proceedings. As a naval officer, Mr. Graham is cautious, yet totally convinced of Byam's innocence. Erskine Byam's father's attorney and a friend of the family.
After the court-martial, he provides Byam with a quiet sanctuary so that Byam can put the horrible tribulations he has undergone into perspective. Hitihiti The Tahitian chief who befriends Byam and helps him formulate the Tahitian dictionary.
Byam lives with Hitihiti and becomes part of his household until Byam marries the beautiful Tehani. Tehani The exquisitely lovely Tahitian princess who becomes Byam's wife and, later, the mother of their daughter, Helen.
When Byam is imprisoned aboard the Pandora, Tehani wants to lead a revolt against the ship in an attempt to free Byam, but Byam convinces her that to attempt to free him would lead to the annihilation of vast numbers of Tahitians. He lives in a very conservative part of England, where his highly respected family has resided for over five hundred years.
He then takes us back into the past. The year is , and he is seventeen years old and expected to go to Oxford, as is the custom in his family. Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty 7 www.
He was a close friend of Roger's recently deceased father, and, in his letter, he tells them that a certain Captain William Bligh, who was an officer with the famous Captain Cook, an explorer of the Tahitian Islands, is visiting friends in the neighborhood. Accordingly, the Byams extend Captain Bligh an invitation to their home, and when he arrives for dinner, the discussion turns to the islands of the South Sea.
Captain Bligh tells them about his forthcoming trip to Tahiti in order to collect breadfruit trees as a cheap staple for the slaves of British gentry stationed in the West Indies. He has also been commissioned to formulate a dictionary of the Tahitian language, which he is incapable of doing.
However, on learning that Roger has a gift for languages he speaks fluent French, Italian, Latin, and is mastering German , Captain Bligh extends an invitation for Roger to join the expedition in order to compile a Tahitian dictionary.
Surprisingly, since she is a recent widow, Roger's mother is wholeheartedly for the project, even though it will mean a two-year journey away from home for Roger.
Young Byam goes to London to join the crew of the Bounty, and while there, he visits Sir Joseph Banks, who gives him encouragement about the dictionary; it will be invaluable to the merchants and seamen who are traveling and trading in that area. Toward the end of November, Byam joins the Bounty, whose "great cabin aft" has been converted into a garden for the reception of the breadfruit trees.
This arrangement makes the living quarters of the men extremely cramped: four men to an 8 x 10 foot area; each of them has virtually no space to move around in, and only one person can get out of his berth at a time. Byam is then introduced to the first mate, Fletcher Christian, "a fine figure of a seaman," the master, Mr.
Fryer, and the surgeon, Thomas Huggan. Bligh and Byam are then invited to board another ship, the Tigress, to have dinner with the captain, and while they are on board, they witness the flogging of an able-bodied seaman who has died--yet continues to receive an additional 24 lashes with the cat-of-nine-tails.
After this episode, the three go to the captain's cabin. Bligh and the host captain eat as though nothing happened. Byam, however, has little appetite. Commentary The opening of the novel functions as a prologue to the entire novel. We first learn that the narrator of the novel has spent some forty years of his life at sea and now, at seventy-three, retired, and with much time on his hands, has decided to write about his adventures on the high seas.
Of all his adventures at sea, he singles out the most significant: the mutiny aboard the Bounty. As a result of that mutiny, he was locked in irons, brought back to England, tried by a court-martial, and condemned to die by hanging. The prologue therefore arouses our curiosity because we are obviously interested in learning how he escaped death. While this novel is based upon a historically true incident, the authors use their poetic license--that is, they change reality to create a fictional narrator, "Roger Byam," who will tell the story.
They choose "Byam" in order to make the narrative more interesting: he will be representing the viewpoint of the upper class, a young man who is very conservative, a characteristic not readily associated with the con- cept of mutiny. He will be an innocent man, caught up in a tangled web of good and evil. Sir Joseph Banks, who will become Byam's strongest defender at the end of the book, when Roger is accused of treason, is also introduced to the reader.
At this time, the adventures of Captain Cook were well-known throughout Europe; his investigations into little-known cultures led many people to read the writings of Jean Jacques Rousseau, Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty 8 www. This idea is often referred to as the Noble Savage concept. It is an idealistic and romantic belief which Captain Bligh doesn't accept; in contrast to Rousseau, who believed in the nobility of the savage, Bligh is a realist who has no illusions about the natives.
He knows that they are superstitious and live in a rigid, hierarchical society. Chapter 1 also provides us with the reason for Byam's being taken on the expedition: his expert grasp of foreign languages makes him the perfect choice to formulate a dictionary of the Tahitian language.
According to Sir Joseph, the value of such a dictionary is inestimable because the language is spoken over a great portion of the South Sea area and will be of great benefit for commerce with the islanders. At the end of Chapter 1, we learn from Sir Joseph that Captain Bligh has a reputation for being a hard taskmaster and that he is infamous for his belief in "discipline's the thing.
Another cause of the mutiny is introduced in Chapter 2. The ship, which is small, is cramped even further when the captain turns the great cabin into a garden, forcing the men to live in an area that is incredibly small. One should always keep in mind that the mutiny is not caused by one single incident. The novel presents multiple reasons for the seizure of the ship.
The incident of the dead man being flogged emphasizes the severity of "sea law"--law so severe that it will later be directly related to the mutiny.
The incident is so unnerving to young Byam that he loses his appetite, and yet the incident has no effect at all on the experienced captains, who, as we learn later, have extensive experience in meting out severe punishment. In addition to the above event, this chapter emphasizes the severity, and the need, of "sea law. Captain Cook an English navigator and explorer Rediscovered the Hawaiian Islands Sandwich Islands. Killed by Hawaiian natives. Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty 9 www. Cliffs Notes on Mutiny on the Bounty 10 www.
During that time, young Byam is taught trigonometry, nautical astrology, and navigation, along with two of his fellow midshipmen: George Stewart, a seaman who has made other voyages before his current stint on the Bounty, and Edward Young. Bligh described a fascinating Tahitian social tradition that offers us an insight how they handled the challenge of population control.
There was a wandering group of gypsies that was independent of any of the local communities. The Arioi sect were 10 composed of both men and women who traveled between the settled communities and the different islands for visits. Yet existing conflicts between communities were suspended upon their arrival. The plays were farcical satires that were sharp critiques of their hosts. The remarkable license allowed to this society was in complete contrast to the local norm. Outside observers have characterized the Arioi as a fertility cult due to their sexual activity.
Be that as it may, the Arioi were forbidden to carry or sustain children. Abortion or exposure were the solution to unwanted pregnancies. Bligh completed his goal of bringing breadfruit back to Jamaica without incident on the second trip. Although breadfruit would eventually become a popular food in the West Indies, the slaves refused to eat it at the time. When Bligh returned to London he was shocked to discover that he had been converted from a hero to a villain the court of the public press.
This was the result of the trial of the mutineers that had been brought back to England while he was away. Of the ten mutineers on trial three more were convicted and hung from the yardarm of a navel vessel.
A Narrative Of The Mutiny, On Board His Majesty's Ship Bounty; And The
Edward was a celebrated lawyer. It caused a sensation and the popular myth of the villainous Bligh versus the noble Christian was born. In response to the public excitement concerning Fletcher Christian, the navy did what comes naturally to it when a storm approaches; it put out to sea, it stayed the course, 11 it stuck to its guns. Bligh went on to become a Captain in time to be involved in the Spithead and the Nore mutinies in The American Revolution was now taking its toll.
These were the most serious rebellions in English navel history.
They were incited by low pay and the brutality of the life of the common seaman. A few seamen were hanged, a few changes were made in navel procedure, and life went on. Nelson praised him for contributing to this victory over the allies of the French. In Britain a heavy toll was now being paid for the reformation of their agricultural society. The migration from the countryside to the cities created slums of indescribable filth and disease.
It is estimated that one out of every five women were whores. A heavily punitive Marshal Law was necessary to maintain social order. There were crimes in the British legal code that carried the death penalty including stealing goods worth as 12 little as five shillings.
The numbers of convicts who were not hanged, pilloried, or drawn and quartered was so great that the overflow from the jails or workhouses was warehoused in derelict and rotting ship hulks. In a moment of charity the sentence of many of these convicts was commuted and they were transported to the colonies to work assuming they survived the ocean voyage. When that was no longer an option after the Revolutionary War Australia would be populated in this manner.
Attempting to bring rampant alcoholism in line Bligh incited a Rum Rebellion. It was put down with great brutality.
After this he was promoted to Rear Admiral and then Vice Admiral. This is the last we hear of Captain Bligh, but the story of the mutiny will go on with a life of its own. In the American ship, the Topaz, stumbled upon Pitcairn Island and its inhabitants. They were charmed to discover the answer to the lingering question, what happened to the Bounty mutineers. A grizzled old patriarch named John Adams was found leading a colony of 10 Polynesian women and 23 well-formed, English-looking children including Thursday October Christian.
Slowly their story came out chapter by chapter for a rapt public. Fletcher Christian was the first leader of the little group on Pitcairn promoting a policy of equality for all. This appears to have been ignored. The English sailors treated the Polynesians as racially inferior.
Fighting broke out. At least four of the English and all the Polynesian men died in this racial vendetta. During the uneasy peace that followed William McCoy invented a still and began to brew an alcoholic drink from a native plant.
Heavy drinking quickly ensued; the women now revolted killing several of the mutineers. Fletcher Christian died at some point. It is speculated that he was killed while attempting to mediate the differences between the English and the Polynesians, or perhaps it occurred while attempting to control the growing alcoholism. Some suggest he 13 committed suicide leaving only John Adams and his covey of native women to tell the tale. Adams, who had changed his name from Alexander Smith, could not remember or refused to say what had happened.
In a ruthlessly democratic fashion Bligh distributed the burden of sacrifice as well as the food. The absence of women helped.
The mutineers had no sanctioned social order, no way to justify or ameliorate inequalities, and there was a huge cultural gap to bridge between English sailors and Tahitian women. Disordered by the freedoms they felt they attained, the mutineers degraded into a drunken nightmare of paranoia, violence, and murder. The lion would eventually lie peaceably with the lambs, but not until all the other lions had been killed.
When this story came out many an Englishman would see the Pitcairn colony led by John Adams as a miraculous resurrection of Old Testament Christianity and a confirmation of the traditional roles played by the sexes in The Garden of Eden. The snake hidden in this Eden—assuming the social discords of the moment could be transcended—was the potential for famine. As an act of charity after being discovered they were shipped off to Tahiti where this balancing act was being played out. However, Adams and his flock were shocked by the sexual mores practiced on Tahiti.
They must have seen the Arioi at work The mutineers had recreated the brutal culture they had sailed half the way around the world to escape. The Pitcairners traded most of their worldly goods, including the copper bolts salvaged from the Bounty, for passage back to Pitcairn Island. Eventually they were offered residence on Norfolk Island, which was a far better alternative for them to Pitcairn Island or Tahiti.
Most took the offer. Because the potato was used as a lower class food in the New World, the potato was only fed to the sick and poor in Spain initially. Antoine Augustine Parmentier, the pharmacist to Louis XV of France, realized the nutritional value and productive capacity of the potato and was determined that it should become more widely used.
It would eventually become a staple in the French diet, but it was not enough to forestall the famine of and the French Revolution that soon followed. About the potato was adopted as a food source in Ireland for another impoverished working class. Along with some garden greens the potato became the food resource for a population explosion in Ireland in the early s.
Ireland had been used to pasture cows for centuries. The colonization of Ireland by Britain extended the grazing land to satisfy the English taste for beef. Irish farms were also close enough to provide fresh greens for the English table. Tenant farmers worked the land and took care of the herds for their absentee English and Irish landowners. They were allowed to use a small piece of poor land upon which to grow their potatoes.
The potato gave the tenant farmers the freedom to come and go as they pleased, but they had none of the minimal protections owed to Medieval serfs who, by law, were owned by the landowner as with any other livestock. Owning no land tenant farmers had no political voice as well. Being Catholic these tenant farmers were easily viewed by their Protestant landowners as subhuman.
It was the worst of all possible worlds for labor. From the beginning of its introduction the potato was vulnerable to blight.
There were 24 failures of the potato crop between and During the famine of local ports were closed to keep food grown in Ireland, in Ireland. This caused the prices of food to drop in Ireland that also helped to ease the situation. During the potato failures and famines of and the influence of the Anglican cleric Thomas Malthus held sway. Vanity, vanity, all is vanity. By the s the English Poor Laws were coming under scrutiny.
The Poor Law Commissioners believed, with Malthus, that welfare would only exacerbate the condition of poverty. Taxes that were intended for the care of the unemployed were cut. In spite of this there was created an honest Christian opposition on the home island. It had been an act of faith and principle in Capitalist ideology going back to Adam Smith that economies of scale by an industrialized society could overcome the conditions that created poverty that Jesus said would always be with us.
It was easy to argue that the Malthusian principle was too simplistic. Benjamin Franklin observed that an industrialized society without any population controls would soon loose any advantage created by Capitalism.
A more radical point-of-view saw lack of capital investment as the problem and the venue for a solution. Changing the existing relationship between landowners and labor was proposed by Fredrick Engles, The Condition of the Working Class, , who owned a thread mill in Manchester. The socialist revolutions in the s on the Continent began have back-door results in Britain by the time a widespread potato failure began in the autumn of Under the mentorship of the Duke of Wellington who advised against allowing conditions that bred social disorder, Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel negotiated a large purchase of corn from America.
While still exporting food to England the famine in Ireland continued to get worse in Once the flood gates of sympathy had been opened there would be no stopping charitable intervention on this occasion.
Peel now joined the Whigs and Radicals causing the repeal of the tariffs on grain imported into England, called the Corn Laws, to get bread into the mouths of the Irish. These Corn Laws had been enacted to keep the price of bread high enough to protect the English Squires on their agricultural estates from cheap foreign imports.
This had become a political possibility because there was no love lost between the older entrenched aristocracy and the newly wealthy industrial class with its own workers to feed, or the banking and trading class that was taking the place of the Squires in supporting the Second English Empire.
The Squire class was increasingly debauched and insolvent by this point. There were many other charitable attempts to help the Irish at this time, but it is hard to see that it did any good.
By a million Irish had died of famine and disease. Millions more immigrated out of the Emerald Island for America. The Irish filled up the port cities where they landed—Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore— becoming as much as 25 percent of the urban population.
It could only be accomplished by a brutal Civil War that dismantled the weak states-rights republic, replacing it with a centralized industrial state. Another economic principle was offered to fend off the full effect of the Malthusian business cycle. It was proposed by David Ricardo.
The spread of trade world wide by Great Britain would modify, delay, or even eliminate economic recessions at home. This would place the burden of economic recessions on the Third World were they had always existed. In exchange Britain would be educating and civilizing those benighted cultures. This was a Christian justification for the colonial empire where none was really needed.
It was a rationalization implicit in the Age of Discovery in the first place. The repeal of the Corn Laws impoverished many an English farmer.
Much farmland was put to industrial and residential uses. England had become the great steaming, value-added, machine shop of the world. Just as the steam-propelled marine vessels that had replaced sailing ships could ignore the seasons of the wind, the industrial culture could now just keep humming along without any concern for agricultural cycles.
The up and coming German culture on the continent had entered the colonial sweepstakes late. Germany is stressed for raw materials, especially oil, and looking for colonial opportunities by the beginning of the twentieth-century.
The First World War is centered on the contest between a Germanic State seeking to establish access to raw materials, and an Anglo-Germanic State in league with the France seeking to protect their colonial prerogatives.
The Brits and the French defeat the Germans after the Americans join the war giving blood, treasure, and bread to their exhausted allies. After the end of the war the Germans learn that they were within two weeks of reducing the English to a state of starvation by their submarine blockade.
When German aspirations for empire are revived by a fascist government in the s Anglo-Saxon and American culture is complacent, being preoccupied with their own economic problems. They intend the Bounty story to be read as a metaphor for what has happened in the German ship-of-state.
Captain Bligh is portrayed as a bullying tyrant; Christian a tragic hero following the story line created by his brother Edward Christian. This epic becomes the basis of movies, televisions shows, as well as many more books over the decades. In typical Hollywood fashion the story is polished into an archetypal dialectic of good versus evil.
This suits popular culture. At the time America is in the depth of a major economic depression and the lower classes are beginning to attend to the siren songs of godless Communism or at least labor unions.
The upper-class in America and England look with favor to the model of National Socialism in Germany after the stock market collapses in , with fear of Communist Russia lurking in the background. Fate would put that issue on hold. The Germans get their grain from Russia. First Hitler decides to side with Stalin in order to get his daily bread, but soon enough he changes his mind considering the unstable nature of the Russians, the German distaste for everything Slavic, and the state of social collapse England is in after Dunkirk.
The only alternative is to invade Russia, and with his submarines blockade England into starvation. The Russians temporarily join the Allies to defeat Germany. England wins the war with Russian and American help again, but looses an empire through bankruptcy. Germany looses the war, but becomes the most powerful European state after its Phoenix-like recovery as an industrial powerhouse.
Mutiny on the Bounty in starring Trevor Howard as Bligh and Marlon Brando as Christian is considered definitive for the post-war generation. The English accent of Trevor Howard is used by Hollywood to invoke the reviled tradition of aristocratic privilege to an American ear. What is interesting about this movie is that it presages the outcome of the social revolution in the 60s. Brando bursts out his role in the movie using method acting as an excuse for bad acting.
He tries to realize his personal vision of back-to-the-land utopia by marrying his leading lady Tarita Teriipia, born in Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Out of their dysfunctional relationship comes a world of pain that would mirror the rise and fall of the idealistic Hippy generation. The only thing uglier is the Cold War itself and the paranoid culture it creates. This version is generally considered the most historically accurate movie that has been made on the subject.
It is based upon the large body of historical analysis that has been done. Bligh is shown as a Captain with concern for the health and welfare of his crew. He is, nevertheless, appropriately thin-skinned and somewhat paranoid.In response to the public excitement concerning Fletcher Christian, the navy did what comes naturally to it when a storm approaches; it put out to sea, it stayed the course, 11 it stuck to its guns.
He navigated his men over thirty-six hundred miles of rough sea in an open boat with hardly any food or water--and with virtually no navigational equipment.
That's settled. Both of these actions cause grumbling among the men. Hall's success continued after The High Barbaree. Joseph Coleman the Bounty's armorer. After ten months at sea Bligh allowed the crew to go ashore to socialize and relax with the Tahitian woman. The novel closes with Byam contemplating the events of his life and the beauty of Tahiti before returning to his ship.