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John Lyons Language and Linguistics an Introduction - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. John Lyons. John Lyons Language and Linguistics an Introduction - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. INTRODUCTION TO THEORETICAL LINGUISTICS - JOHN pixia-club.info Akmajian, Demers, Farmer & Harnish - Linguistics, An Introduction to Language and.

Language And Linguistics John Lyons Pdf

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Cambridge Core - English Language and Linguistics: General Interest - Language and Linguistics - by John Lyons. Language and Linguistics by John Lyons, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Language and Linguistics book. Read 11 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. A basic introduction to linguistics and the study of langu.

Semantics; 6. Language-change; 7. Some modern schools and movements; 8. Language and mind; 9. Language and society; Language and culture; Bibliography; Index. Rating details.

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The design features of language 4 Productivity, also termed creativity, refers to the creative capacity of language users to produce and understand an infinitely large number of sentences, including sentences they have never used or heard before. However, what should be borne in mind is that ordinary users of language do not use language in a productive way. As a matter of fact, we are always repeating ourselves and others.

The design features of language 5 Displacement means that human beings can talk about objects or events which do not belong to the immediate setting in space and time. This is a very normal property of communication in human beings, rarely demonstrated in other species.

As Bertrand Russell once said, no matter how eloquently a dog may bark, he cannot tell you that his parents were poor but honest.

Human language can be used to talk about real or imagined matters in the past, present, or future. We can write science fictions, tell fairy tales, handle generalizations and abstractions, and even lie and deceive by means of language.

This is the chief reason why linguists tend to believe that language is a more distinctive feature of human species than any other features like the use of tools or the size of brain, etc. The design features of language 6 Cultural transmission means the transmission of language from one generation to the next through members of a society as opposed to genetic inheritance.

In other words, the details of the linguistic system must be learned anew by each speaker.

Though the capacity for language in the human being has a genetic basis, the particular language one learns is a cultural fact rather than a genetic one.

The origin of language 1 Although interest in the origin of language dates back to antiquity, we are still farfrom knowing when and how language arose. There are three well-known theories concerning the origin of language: the divine-origin theory, the invention theory and the evolution theory. According to Genesis of the Bible, God created Adam and gave him the power to name all things.

Lyons John. Language and Linguistics: An Introduction

Similar stories can be found in many religions of the world about a divine source who provides humans with language. The origin of language 2 The invention theory maintains that language is a human invention. This theory is manifested in the five theories summarized by the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen with the following names: 1 The bow-wow theory: Language originated by the imitation of natural sounds such as animal calls.

The evidence for this theory is the existence of onomatopoeic words in language.

This theory can be supported by the interjections in language. The original sounds people made were supposedly in harmony with the world around them. This can be explained by sound symbolism, which is the phenomenon that vocal sounds suggest meaning. Similar to the ding-dong theory, the oral-gesture theory suggests that language is an oral mirror of physical gestures through the movement of the tongue, lips and other vocal organs.

Examples supporting this theory are the prosodic features, especially of rhythm in language. The origin of language 3? The evolution theory maintains that language developed in the course of the evolution of the human species. The development of language is closely related to the evolutionary development of the speech organs, especially the oral cavity and the pharyngeal cavity.

For example, the shapes of human teeth, lips and the tongue evolved in such a way that enables humans to produce a variety of speech sounds. The evolution theory seems to provide a better explanation for the origin of language. What is linguistics?

It clearly belongs to the humanities and social sciences, which are obviously different from disciplines like physics, chemistry or biology, whose scientific status is unquestioned. Linguistics is a science because linguists share the goal of scientific enquiry, which is objective understanding.

The primary aim of linguistics is to understand the nature of language and of languages. Linguists attempt to construct theories of language, and to apply theoretical considerations to a description or analysis of language or languages. Objectivity is the most important principle of the scientific method.

In order to obtain objectivity in linguistic study, linguists should see and describe a language as it is, not as what they think it ought to be. Linguistics is scientific in its methodology. It is concerned with observing facts about language, setting up hypotheses, testing their validity and accepting or rejecting them accordingly.

Modern linguists differ from traditional grammarians in adopting empirical rather than speculative or intuitive approaches in their study. Here follows the first distinction between modern linguistics and traditional grammar. That is, linguistics is descriptive rather than prescriptive. The empirical approach to language that linguists adopt usually consists of four stages: data collection i. According to modern linguistics, there is any absolute standard of correctness concerning language use which school teachers should view as their duty to maintain.

The second contrast between modern linguistics and traditional grammar is that linguistics regards the spoken language as primary, not the written. Traditional grammar tends to emphasize the importance of the written language and the writings or styles of classical writers are considered the most prestigious form of language that learners should imitate. Thirdly, linguistics differs from traditional grammar in that it does not force languages into a Latin-based framework.

In the past, Latin was considered the language that provided a universal grammar for all languages and other languages were forced to fit into Latin patterns and categories, especially its case system and tense divisions of past, present and future. The scope of linguistics 1 Language has been studied from different points of view and different dimensions of linguistics can be distinguished according to the point of view that is adopted or the special emphasis that is laid on certain aspects of language.To do this, we need to understand what precisely is at issue in any particular dispute.

But this chapter suffers from a lack offamiliarity with the linguistic literature on the form and domain ofintonation contours; e. Functional linguistics 2 The first noteworthy school of functional linguistics is perhaps the Prague School, represented by linguists in Czechoslovakia, who founded the linguistic circle of Prague.

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