HTTP PROTOCOL TUTORIAL PDF
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. This is the foundation for. To display page browser fetches the file pixia-club.info from a web server. Same as pixia-club.info (Defaults: port 80, file pixia-club.info, http protocol). ○ HTTP. Computer Networks. HTTP Protocol. Professor Richard Harris. School of Engineering and Advanced. Technology (SEAT).
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The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level the protocol referred to as “HTTP/”, and is an update to RFC . HTTP is an asymmetric request-response client-server protocol as illustrated. video/mpeg ", " application/msword ", and " application/pdf ". http protocol simplified protocol session::= request response request::= requestLine header+ [body]. requestLine::= method path response::= status header+.
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Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Gurjot Singh , Summer Intern Follow. If the server has multiple versions of the requested document e.
This process is called language negotiation. Accept-Charset: Charset-1, Charset-2, Accept-Encoding: encoding-method-1, encoding-method-2, If the server has encoded or compressed version of the document requested, it can return an encoded version supported by the client.
The server can also choose to encode the document before returning to the client to reduce the transmission time. The server must set the response header "Content-Encoding" to inform the client that the returned document is encoded.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The common encoding methods are "x-gzip. Connection: Close Keep-Alive - The client can use this header to tell the server whether to close the connection after this request, or to keep the connection alive for another request. Referer: referer-URL - The client can use this header to indicate the referrer of this request.
If you click a link from web page 1 to visit web page 2, web page 1 is the referrer for request to web page 2. All major browsers set this header, which can be used to track where the request comes from for web advertising, or content customization.
Nonetheless, this header is not reliable and can be easily spoofed. Note that Referrer is misspelled as "Referer" unfortunately, you have to follow too. User-Agent: browser-type - Identify the type of browser used to make the request.
Server can use this information to return different document depending on the type of browsers. Cache-Control: no-cache Instead, it uses "Pragma: no-cache".
This header will be described in later chapter on authentication. This header will be discussed in later chapter on state management.
If-Modified-Since: date - Tell the server to send the page only if it has been modified after the specific date.
GET Request for Directory Suppose that a directory called "testdir" is present in the document base directory "htdocs". Otherwise, the server returns the directory listing, if directory listing is enabled in the server configuration. Otherwise, the server returns " Page Not Found".
The following trace was captured using telnet. A connection is established with the proxy server, and a GET request issued. Absolute request-URI is used in the request line.
However, the server returns only the response header without the response body, which contains the actual document. Sometimes, HEAD is not listed.
Table of Contents
Based on the data submitted, the server takes an appropriate action and produces a customized response. Once they fill in the requested data and hit the submit button, the browser packs the form data and submits them to the server, using either a GET request or a POST request.
Each field has a name and can take on a specified value. This is known as a query string. Most of the time the user-agent is a Web browser, but it can be anything, for example a robot that crawls the Web to populate and maintain a search engine index. Each individual request is sent to a server, which will handle it and provide an answer, called the response. Between this request and response there are numerous entities, collectively designated as proxies , which perform different operations and act as gateways or caches , for example.
In reality, there are more computers between a browser and the server handling the request: Thanks to the layered design of the Web, these are hidden in the network and transport layers. HTTP is on top at the application layer.
Although important to diagnose network problems, the underlying layers are mostly irrelevant to the description of HTTP. The user-agent is any tool that acts on the behalf of the user. This role is primarily performed by the Web browser; a few exceptions being programs used by engineers, and Web developers to debug their applications.
The browser is always the entity initiating the request.
It is never the server though some mechanisms have been added over the years to simulate server-initiated messages. To present a Web page, the browser sends an original request to fetch the HTML document from the page. It then parses this file, fetching additional requests corresponding to execution scripts, layout information CSS to display, and sub-resources contained within the page usually images and videos.
The Web browser then mixes these resources to present to the user a complete document, the Web page. Scripts executed by the browser can fetch more resources in later phases and the browser updates the Web page accordingly. A Web page is a hypertext document. This means some parts of displayed text are links which can be activated usually by a click of the mouse to fetch a new Web page, allowing the user to direct their user-agent and navigate through the Web. On the opposite side of the communication channel, is the server which serves the document as requested by the client.
A server presents only as a single machine virtually: A server is not necessarily a single machine, but several servers can be hosted on the same machine. Due to the layered structure of the Web stack, most of these operate at either the transport, network or physical levels, becoming transparent at the HTTP layer and potentially making a significant impact on performance.Instead, it uses "Pragma: no-cache".
How the web works: HTTP and CGI explained
The references link to the list of registered MIME types. No problem! So the proxy is really a common cache for a number of users and can reduce network traffic rather dramatically. The web server receives a request just like any other, but notes that this URL does not map to a flat file, but instead somehow to a scripting area.
Clients and servers communicate by exchanging individual messages as opposed to a stream of data.
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