HISTORY OF EGYPT PDF
THE STORY OF THE NORMANS. By Sarah O. Jewett. THE STORY OF PERSIA. By S. G. W. Benjamin. THE STORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT. By Geo. Rawlinson. A brief history of Egypt / Arthur Goldschmidt Jr. p. cm. — (Brief history). Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN ISBN istory of Ancient E gypt. Guidebook. Course Guidebook. The History of Ancient Egypt. Professor Bob Brier. Long Island University. History. Topic. Ancient History .
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2. Chapter 1. Pre-Dynastic Times: Upper and Lower Egypt: The Unification. . It is generally agreed that the history of a united Egypt started about the end of the. 1) Course Introduction and Brief History of Ancient Egypt. The basic element in the lengthy history of Egyptian civilization is geography. in the author's History of Egypt," which is based upon the documentary sources in these volumes. As a further aid in gaining a comprehensive idea of the content.
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While the names of the Hyksos kings are Semitic in origin, no definite ethnicity has been established for them. The Hyksos grew in power until they were able to take control of a significant portion of Lower Egypt by c.
This era is known as The Second Intermediate Period c. The title of pharaoh for the ruler of Egypt comes from the period of the New Kingdom; earlier monarchs were simply known as kings. Many of the Egyptian sovereigns best known today ruled during this period and the majority of the great structures of antiquity such as the Ramesseum, Abu Simbel , the temples of Karnak and Luxor, and the tombs of the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens were either created or greatly enhanced during this time.
Her year reign was one of peace and prosperity for Egypt. Her successor, Tuthmosis III, carried on her policies although he tried to eradicate all memory of her as, it is thought, he did not want her to serve as a role model for other women since only males were considered worthy to rule and, by the time of his death in BCE, Egypt was a great and powerful nation.
The prosperity led to, among other things, an increase in the brewing of beer in many different varieties and more leisure time for sports.
Advances in medicine led to improvements in health. At this time, however, more elaborate baths were produced, presumably more for leisure than simply hygiene. Surgery and dentistry were both practiced widely and with great skill, and beer was prescribed by physicians for ease of symptoms of over different maladies.
The Egyptians, as noted above, traditionally believed in many gods whose importance influenced every aspect of their daily lives. Among the most popular of these deities were Amun , Osiris, Isis, and Hathor. The cult of Amun, at this time, had grown so wealthy that the priests were almost as powerful as the pharaoh.
History of Egypt
Akhenaten and his queen, Nefertiti , renounced the traditional religious beliefs and customs of Egypt and instituted a new religion based upon the recognition of one god. His religious reforms effectively cut the power of the priests of Amun and placed it in his hands. He moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna to further distance his rule from that of his predecessors. This is known as The Amarna Period BCE during which Amarna grew as the capital of the country and polytheistic religious customs were banned.
Among his many accomplishments, Akhenaten was the first ruler to decree statuary and a temple in honor of his queen instead of only for himself or the gods and used the money which once went to the temples for public works and parks. The Amarna Letters make clear that he was more concerned with his religious reforms than with foreign policy or the needs of the people of Egypt.
His reign was followed by his son, the most recognizable Egyptian ruler in the modern day, Tutankhamun , who reigned from c. His reign was cut short by his death and, today, he is most famous for the intact grandeur of his tomb , discovered in CE, which became an international sensation at the time.
The greatest ruler of the New Kingdom, however, was Ramesses II also known as Ramesses the Great, BCE who commenced the most elaborate building projects of any Egyptian ruler and who reigned so efficiently that he had the means to do so. Although the famous Battle of Kadesh of between Ramesses II of Egypt and Muwatalli II of the Hitties is today regarded as a draw, Ramesses considered it a great Egyptian victory and celebrated himself as a champion of the people, and finally as a god, in his many public works.
Under the reign of Ramesses II the first peace treaty in the world The Treaty of Kadesh was signed in BCE and Egypt enjoyed almost unprecedented affluence as evidenced by the number of monuments built or restored during his reign. Ramesses II's fourth son, Khaemweset c. It is largely due to Khaemweset's initiative that Ramesses II's name is so prominent at so many ancient sites in Egypt.
In time, all of his subjects had been born knowing only Ramesses II as their ruler and had no memory of another. He enjoyed an exceptionally long life of 96 years, over double the average life-span of an ancient Egyptian. Upon his death, it is recorded that many feared the end of the world had come as they had known no other pharaoh and no other kind of Egypt. The Sea Peoples, like the Hyksos, are of unknown origin but are thought to have come from the southern Aegean area.
After Merenptah's death, however, they increased their efforts, sacking Kadesh, which was then under Egyptian control, and ravaging the coast. Following the reign of Ramesses III, his successors attempted to maintain his policies but increasingly met with resistance from the people of Egypt, those in the conquered territories, and, especially, the priestly class.
In the years after Tutankhamun had restored the old religion of Amun, and especially during the great time of prosperity under Ramesses II, the priests of Amun had acquired large tracts of land and amassed great wealth which now threatened the central government and disrupted the unity of Egypt.
By the time of Ramesses XI BCE , the end of the 20th Dynasty, the government had become so weakened by the power and corruption of the clergy that the country again fractured and central administration collapsed, initiating the so-called Third Intermediate Period of c. Having made no long-term plans for control of the country, the Assyrians left it in ruin in the hands of local rulers and abandoned Egypt to its fate. Egypt rebuilt and re-fortified, however, and this is the state the country was in when Cambyses II of Persia struck at the city of Pelusium in BCE.
Knowing the reverence the Egyptians held for cats who were thought living representations of the popular goddess Bastet Cambyses II ordered his men to paint cats on their shields and to drive cats, and other animals sacred to the Egyptians, in front of the army toward Pelusium.
In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishermen was replaced by a grain -grinding culture. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River, where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society. The Badari culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade.
The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about BC. A unified kingdom was founded BC by King Menes , leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion , arts , language and customs. The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period c.
The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about years. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic-speaking Hyksos. The New Kingdom c. The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism , although some[ who?
Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom.
The country was later invaded and conquered by Libyans , Nubians and Assyrians , but native Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country. Whilst not conclusive, because of the non-exhaustive time frame and restricted location that the mummies represent, their study nevertheless showed that these Ancient Egyptians "closely resembled ancient and modern Near Eastern populations, especially those in the Levant, and had almost no DNA from sub-Saharan Africa.
What's more, the genetics of the mummies remained remarkably consistent even as different powers—including Nubians, Greeks, and Romans—conquered the empire. Xerxes I tomb relief. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs.
The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life.
The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians, often caused by an unwanted regime, and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome. Nevertheless, Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest. Egypt quickly became the Empire's breadbasket supplying the greater portion of the Empire's grain in addition to flax, papyrus, glass, and many other finished goods.
The city of Alexandria became a key trading outpost for the Roman Empire by some accounts, the most important for a time. Shipping from Egypt regularly reached India and Ethiopia among other international destinations. Scholars such as Ptolemy , Hypatia , and Heron broke new ground in astronomy, mathematics, and other disciplines.
Culturally, the city of Alexandria at times rivaled Rome in its importance. The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian.
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the 7th century, until —42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Arab Islamic Empire. The final loss of Egypt was of incalculable significance to the Byzantine Empire, which had relied on Egypt for many agricultural and manufactured goods.
Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with their Christian traditions as well as other indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day.
The Mamluks continued to govern the country until the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in , after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. The defensive militarization damaged its civil society and economic institutions.Others claim, however, that the existence of such buildings and tombs suggest superior technology which has been lost to time.
He moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna to further distance his rule from that of his predecessors. The most famous are the Palermo Stone, which covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the middle of Dynasty 5; the Abydos Kinglist, which Seti I had carved on his temple at Abydos; and the Turin Canon, a papyrus that covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the reign of Ramesses II.
Reign of Mubarak[ edit ]. His reign was followed by his son, the most recognizable Egyptian ruler in the modern day, Tutankhamun , who reigned from c. The king Djoser , who reigned c. The Religion of Ancient Egypt. Retrieved 13 February Sasanian Egypt known in Middle Persian sources as Agiptus refers to the brief rule of Egypt and parts of Libya by the Sasanian Empire , which lasted from to , [ citation needed ] until the Sasanian rebel Shahrbaraz made an alliance with the Byzantine emperor Heraclius and had control over Egypt returned to him.