HANDBOOK OF EMOTION REGULATION PDF
Last digit is print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in- Publication Data Handbook of emotion regulation / edited by James J. Gross. p. cm. PDF | On Jan 1, , J.J. Gross and others published Handbook of emotion regulation. PDF | On Jan 9, , Lucia Giombini and others published Handbook of emotion regulation.
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Handbook of Emotion Regulation, Second Edition. Edited by James J. Number of publications containing the exact term emotion regulation in Google Scholar. handbook of emotion regulation - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Quotidian acts of emotion regulation such as this constitute one important thread in the fabric of Handbook of Emotion Regulation, edited by James J. Gross.
His seminal work and theory, the process model of emotion regulation has been adapted by many other scholars in this field and provided a basic background for empirical studies. He has received many awards for teaching, won several grants and has been running several interdisciplinary research projects to understand emotion and emotion regulation.
The first edition of the Handbook was published in However, since the first edition, so many new conceptual and empirical results have been published that a new edition with new topics and chapters was needed. The book is divided into nine sections. In the first section Gross provides an introduction that includes fundamental knowledge and questions in the field of emotion regulation. The modal model of emotion and the process model of emotion regulation, goals, strategies and outcomes are discussed.
Furthermore, emotions are clearly distinguished from other affective processes, just like emotional regulation is distinguished from other self-regulatory processes. The second section discusses the biological bases of emotion regulation. Ochsner and Gross apply a valuation perspective to analyze emotion and emotion regulation, and to describe the neural systems that are implicated in the core, contextual and conceptual level valuations and the neural systems that support the regulation of valuation.
Proudfit, Dunning, Foti and Weinberg overview EEG studies to help the reader understand the temporal dynamics of emotion regulation. Late positive potential is believed to reflect the flexible and dynamic deployment of motivated attention, and possibly indexing the activity of fronto-parietal attention network.
Johnstone and Walter analyze emotion dysregulation and its biological bases: the network of prefrontal and sub-cortical brain structures and they cite evidence that dysregulation of emotion is not limited to negative emotions in psychopathologies for example in depression or in anxiety disorders.
Finally, Gyurak and Etkin propose that emotion regulation happens along a spectrum of explicit to implicit regulation. Furthermore, from a neurobiological point of view a lateral-medial differentiation between explicit and implicit processes could be useful. In the third section emotion regulation is examined from a cognitive approach. The four articles give an insight into the relationship between our choices, decision and emotion regulation.
Miller, Rodriguez, Kim and Mc-Clure for example discuss how delay discounting and intertemporal choice could be a useful framework for studying emotion regulation. The authors believe that all these strategies work through a common pathway that suppresses reward-related activation in nucleus accumbens and reduce impulsivity. The authors suggest that performance on both DG tasks and emotion regulation may reflect a domain-general regulatory ability, which is influenced by lateral prefrontal cortex activity.
Sheppes introduces the concept of emotion regulation choice, and illustrate this topic with results of studies using a novel paradigm in which participants freely choose between the two strategies: distraction and reappraisal. This chapter also investigates the emotional, cognitive and motivational determinants of emotion regulation choices and their underlying mechanisms.
Studying regulatory choices could be a new way to understand emotion regulation difficulties in different psychopathologies. Finally, Grecucci and Sanfey reviews evidence that emotion regulation strategies used in a decision-making situation could moderate not only the affective inputs but the behavior as well. In the fourth section emotion regulation is analyzed from a developmental point of view. Eisenberg, Hofer, Sulik and Spinrad create a distinction between a more automatic reactive control and self-regulation.
They focus their review on effortful control processes and their impact on the socioemotional development. Thompson presents evidence that both top-down and bottom-up processes play a significant role in emotion regulation and both are shaped by early experiences and family processes.
They chose the topic of neurophysiological development and family context to highlight how different factors can influence the development of emotion regulation skills in this developmental period. Emotion regulation motivation and strategies are also analyzed in this chapter.
For instance, adolescents tend to report more contra-hedonic motivation wanting to enhance or maintain negative emotions or dampen positive emotions behind their emotion regulation compared to other age groups. Concerning the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies more studies are needed to derive a cohesive picture about the developmental changes. Finally, Charles and Carstensen interpret the well-being of older adults in the framework of two theories: the socioemotional selectivity theory and strength and vulnerability integration theory.
From an emotional regulation perspective, selection as a key mechanism along with the changes in goals is believed to play a role in the greater well-being with age, but further studies are needed to investigate other strategies and online emotion regulation as well.
In the fifth section social aspects of emotion regulation are discussed in five chapters. Coan and Maresh use social baseline theory as a framework to highlight the prominent role of the quality of relationships and proximity in brain response to perceived threats. However, as we have emphasized in Figure 1. This dynamic aspect of emotion and emotion regulation is signaled by the feedback arrow in Figure 1. This arrow is meant to suggest the dynamic and reciprocally determined nature of emotion regulation as it occurs in the context of an ongoing stream of emotional stimulation and behavioral responding.
Similar feedback arrows might also be drawn from the emotional response to each of the other steps in the emotion-generative process. Each of these in turn inf luences subsequent emotional responses. On the antecedent side, for example, which emotions we have and how we express them are potent inputs into a new emotion cycle e.
On the response side, too, it seems likely that our current emotional state which is the result of previous emotion regulatory efforts may inf luence how we decide to modulate the current emotional response tendencies e.
Furthermore, as we have noted, the reactions of other people to our emotions constitute significant changes in the situation that further inf luence emotional responding. Modeling these real-time inf luences is a significant conceptual and empirical challenge.
Antecedent-Focused versus Response-Focused Regulation This recursive aspect of emotion generation is essential for understanding the broad distinction between antecedent-focused and response-focused emotion regulation.
In view of the cyclic nature of emotion see Figures 1. Consider the use of cognitive change to help regulate the anxiety we feel about an upcoming exam. The night before the exam, in an Conceptual Foundations 17 effort to decrease our anxiety, we might try to think in a way that decreases the significance the exam has for our long-term goals we might focus on how well we have done with the other aspects of the course so far, or remind ourselves that there are more important things in life than grades, etc.
It is true that this instance of emotion regulation occurs before the exam, but this is not what makes this regulatory strategy antecedent-focused. Indeed, we could mount the same effort at cognitive change during the exam, and it would still be antecedentfocused in our sense. What sense is that? As we have described, emotions unfold over time, and in each cycle of emotion generation, our responses in that cycle inf luence our subsequent responses. When a person uses cognitive regulation either before or during an exam, we regard these efforts as antecedent-focused in the sense that they take place early in a given emotion-generative cycle.
Emotion regulation efforts that target prepulse processes in any given cycle of the emotion-generative process shown in Figure 1.
From One Process to Many For clarity of presentation, our examples have been cases in which an individual has used one type of emotion regulation at a time. Thus, in the previous section, we considered using cognitive change to decrease feelings of exam-related anxiety. However, emotion regulation can also occur in parallel at multiple points in the emotion generative process.
Using many forms of emotion regulation might in fact be the modal case. There are many different ways of inf luencing the emotion-generative process, and if we want to make a big change in a hurry, it may be useful to try several things at once.
Thus, what we do to regulate our emotions—such as going out to a bar with friends in order to get our mind off a bad day at work—often involves multiple regulatory processes. One important and as yet unanswered question is how different forms of emotion regulation typically co-occur. We believe that this question may be profitably addressed both by considering particular contexts e. Even if regulatory processes are often coactive and adjusted dynamically, we believe that a process-oriented approach will bring us closer to understanding the causes, consequences, and underlying mechanisms.
Moreover, such a process-oriented approach is well suited to the study of developmental changes in emotion regulation, and encourages investigators to examine the interaction of external and intrinsic inf luences. In the following sections, we consider three such questions that we believe are particularly important to the field of emotion regulation.
The notion of emotion regulation presupposes that it is possible and sensible to separate emotion generation from emotion regulation. On the other hand, both common sense and its academic counterpart—the modal model—suggest the need to distinguish between emotion and emotion regulation. Admittedly, making this distinction is difficult, because emotion regulation often must be inferred when an emotional response would have proceeded in one fashion but instead is observed to proceed in another.
For example, a still face in someone who typically expresses lots of emotion may be rich with meaning, but the same lack of expression in someone who rarely shows any sign of emotion is less strongly suggestive of emotion regulation. However, recent advances in neuroimaging have made it possible to begin to assess whether particularly in the context of explicit manipulations of emotion regulation there are differences either in the magnitude or regional locus of brain activation associated with emotion alone versus emotion in addition to emotion regulation Ochsner et al.
Emotion regulation also may be inferred from changes in how response components are interrelated as the emotion unfolds over time e. At the highest level, emotion and emotion regulation processes and all other psychological processes for that matter co-occur in the same brain, often at the same time.
The question of whether two sets of processes are separable e. We believe that a two-factor approach that distinguishes emotion from emotion regulation is a useful approach for analyzing basic processes, individual differences, and fashioning clinical interventions.
That said, we also believe that it is crucial to be as explicit as possible about the grounds for inferring the existence of emotion regulation in any given context. At present, we would hypothesize that 1 emotion regulation often co-occurs with emotion, whether or not emotion regulation is explicitly manipulated; and 2 emotion regulation engages some and perhaps many of the same brain regions that are implicated in emotion generation.
Given our nascent understanding of both emotion and emotion regulation processes, we believe it is appropriate to be very cautious indeed when inferring whether emotion regulation processes are operative in a particular context. A conception of varying amounts and types of emotion regulation seems more appropriate. One powerful tool for understanding emotion regulation is to chart the development of emotion regulation. Much of the developmental literature on emotion regulation has Conceptual Foundations 19 focused on the period from infancy through adolescence e.
This is a crucial period because it is a time when temperamental, neurobiological e. Contextual factors considered pivotal in the development of emotion regulation include the varieties of caregiving inf luences on which infants and young children rely for managing their emotions; the growth of language by which emotions are understood, conveyed, and managed; the settings in which the expression of emotion may have adaptive or maladaptive outcomes; and cultural values that define how the emotions of men and women should be regulated in social contexts.
In later childhood and adolescence, as emotions themselves are understood in more complex terms, children begin to appreciate the diverse internal constituents of emotional experience that can be targets of regulatory efforts such as our thoughts, expectations, attitudes, personal history, and other facets of cognitive appraisal processes.
Over time, individual differences in emotional regulatory capacities develop in concert with personality, so that children manage their feelings in a way that is consistent with their temperament-based tolerances, needs for security or stimulation, capacities for self-control, and other personality processes Thompson, Understanding how these developmental processes emerge and are integrated in the growth of emotion regulation skills is a conceptual challenge, and developmental research on emotion regulation faces unique difficulties in empirically operationalizing these processes Cole et al.
In part, age-related shifts in emotion regulation should be expected due to changes in contextual factors: There may be more situations that require suppression in early adulthood than later adulthood e.
For example, if cognitive reappraisal has a healthier profile of consequences than expressive suppression, as individuals mature and gain in life experience, they might increasingly learn to make greater use of healthy emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal and lesser use of less healthy emotion regulation strategies such as suppression.
More broadly, later-life developmental changes in emotion regulation likely occur in concert with broader life goals for older individuals, such as conserving physical energy, ensuring consistent emotional demands, and heightening positive emotional experience Carstensen et al.
Emotional impulses are far from the only psychological processes we must regulate. How does emotion regulation relate to the regulation of stress, moods, thoughts, attention, and impulses such as hunger, aggression, and sexual arousal? Or is it necessary to maintain distinctions among various forms of self-regulation? There is certainly reason to see continuity among regulatory processes across response domains. Nonetheless, in our discussion of emotion and emotion regulation processes above, we have emphasized our preference for making distinctions among various loosely defined types of affective processes and, hence, similar distinctions among various equally loosely defined types of self-regulation.
In part, our emphasis on distinctions among affective processes ref lects our abiding respect for the complexity of both the affective processes themselves and the regulatory processes involved. We are entirely comfortable with the proposition that there may be domain-general aspects of executive control e.
By drawing as explicit distinctions as we can now, we will be able to discern whether these differences matter. If so, we have learned something important about the regulatory processes in question. If not, so much the better—we will then have context-general principles by which to understand self-regulation. For the moment, we recommend a dual strategy of making as explicit distinctions as possible in each study, and then paying careful attention across studies to the points of difference and similarity.
Preparation of this chapter was supported by Grant No. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author. Bargh, J. The nonconscious regulation of emotion. Gross Ed. New York: Guilford Press. Barrett, L. Automaticity and emotion. Bargh Ed. New York: Psychology Press.
Baumeister, R. How emotions facilitate and impair self-regulation. Beer, J. Insights into emotion regulation from neuropsychology. Conceptual Foundations 21 Block, J. The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. Collins Ed. Development of cognition, affect, and social relations pp. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Borkovec, T. Disclosure and worry: Opposite sides of the emotional processing coin. Pennebaker Ed. Botvinick, M. Conf lict monitoring in cognition— emotion competition.
Bowlby, J. Attachment and loss: Attachment. New York: Basic Books. Buck, R.
What is this thing called subjective experience? Ref lections on the neuropsychology of qualia. Neuropsychology, 7, — Calkins, S. Caregiver inf luences on emerging emotion regulation: Biological and environmental transactions in early development. Campbell-Sills, L. Incorporating emotion regulation into conceptualizations and treatments of anxiety and mood disorders. Campos, J. Emergent themes in the study of emotional development and emotion regulation.
Developmental Psychology, 25, — On the nature of emotion regulation. Child Development, 75, — Carstensen, L. Taking time seriously.
Edited by James J. Gross
American Psychologist, , — Charles, S. Emotion regulation and aging. Clore, G. Affective causes and consequences of social information processing. Srull Eds. Cole, P. Child Development, 73, — Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Developmental Psychology, 34, — Cramer, P. Defense mechanisms in psychology today. American Psychologist, 55, — Davidson, R.
On emotion, mood, and related affective constructs. Davidson Eds. New York: Oxford University Press. Neural bases of emotion regulation in nonhuman primates and humans. Denham, S. Emotional development in young children. Eisenberg, N. Parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 9, — Effortful control and its socioemotional consequences.
Ekman, P. Facial expression and emotion. American Psychologist, 48, — Ellsworth, P. Appraisal processes in emotion. Davidson, K. Goldsmith Eds.
Ferguson, E. Motivation: A biosocial and cognitive integration of motivation and emotion. Fiedler, K. Emotional mood, cognitive style, and behavior regulation. Forgas Eds. Toronto: Hogrefe. The development of self-control of emotion: Intrinsic and extrinsic inf luences. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 7— Freud, S. Inhibitions, symptoms, anxiety A. Strachey, Trans. Strachey, Ed. New York: Norton. Original work published Frijda, N. The emotions. Gilbert, D. Immune neglect: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, — Gross, J. Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review.
Review of General Psychology, 2, — Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, — Wise emotion regulation. Salovey Eds. Emotional suppression: Physiology, self-report, and expressive behavior.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, — Hiding feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting positive and negative emotions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, , 95— Emotion regulation and mental health.
Handbook of Emotion Regulation
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 2, — Emotion regulation in everyday life. Snyder, J. Hughes Eds. Hariri, A. Genetics of emotion regulation.
Harris, P. Insight into the time course of emotion among Western and Chinese children. Child Development, 56, — Understanding emotion and experiencing emotion. Harris Eds. New York: Cambridge University Press. Izard, C. Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, — James, W. What is an emotion? Mind, 9, — John, O. Individual differences in emotion regulation.
Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and lifespan development. Journal of Personality, 72, — Just, N.
The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, , — Kahneman, D.Original work published Frijda, N. However, as we have emphasized in Figure 1. Publication No. Contextual factors considered pivotal in the development of emotion regulation include the varieties of caregiving inf luences on which infants and young children rely for managing their emotions; the growth of language by which emotions are understood, conveyed, and managed; the settings in which the expression of emotion may have adaptive or maladaptive outcomes; and cultural values that define how the emotions of men and women should be regulated in social contexts.
Barrett, L. Section 9 considers the health implications of emotion regulation and dysregulation.
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