DEUTSCHES GRUNDGESETZ PDF
Deutscher Bundestag, Berlin All rights reserved. This publication is produced by the German Bundestag as part of its public relations work. It is provided. Mai des Jahres vom Parlamentarischen Rat beschlossene Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland in der Woche vom Mai durch die. Full text in format: HTML PDF · text in German und Professor Donald P. Kommers in Kooperation mit dem Sprachendienst des Deutschen Bundestages.
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Bundesgesetzblatt Nr 1 von pixia-club.info verfassungsgebenden Gewalt dieses Grundgesetz der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beschlossen. On the following website, the Lesbian and Gay Federation in Germany (Lesben- und Schwulenverband in Deutschland, LSVB) has compiled information for. 60 Jahre Grundgesetz der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Einige Bemerkungen zu Demokratie und Föderalismus in Deutschland aus schweizerischer.
Allerdings steht es dem einfachen Gesetzgeber nicht zu, den Katalog des Art. Die Begrenzungs- und Schutzfunktion der Finanzverfassung entfaltet ihre Wirkung auch in Bezug auf landesrechtliche Regelungen. Die Kernbrennstoffsteuer ist eine Steuer im finanzverfassungsrechtlichen Sinne, denn sie ist ohne individuelle Gegenleistung zur Deckung des allgemeinen Finanzbedarfs erhoben worden.
Die Verbrauchsteuern sind aber von den Unternehmensteuern abzugrenzen. Sie werden zwar auf der Ebene des Verteilers oder Herstellers des verbrauchsteuerbaren Gutes erhoben. Diese Summe ist identisch mit dem damals kalkulierten Steueraufkommen.
Dies war im Hinblick auf die von Anfang an mit erheblichen finanzverfassungsrechtlichen Unsicherheiten belastete Kernbrennstoffsteuer nicht der Fall. Warum die Verteilung des Aufkommens der in Art. Von Art.
Article 65 [Power to determine policy guidelines — Department and collegiate responsibility]. Article 65a [Command of the Armed Forces].
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Article 66 [Incompatibilities]. Article 67 [Vote of no confidence]. Article 68 [Vote of confidence]. Article 69 [Deputy Federal Chancellor — Term of office]. Federal Legislation and Legislative Procedures. Article 71 [Exclusive legislative power of the Federation]. Article 72 [Concurrent legislative powers]. Article 73 [Matters under exclusive legislative power of the Federation]. Article 74 [Matters under concurrent legislative powers]. Article 74a [repealed].
Article 75 [repealed].
Article 76 [Bills]. Article 77 [Legislative procedure — Mediation Committee]. Article 78 [Passage of federal laws]. Article 79 [Amendment of the Basic Law]. Article 80 [Issuance of statutory instruments]. Article 80a [State of tension].
Article 81 [Legislative emergency]. Article 82 [Certification — Promulgation — Entry into force]. Article 86 [Federal administration].
Article 87 [Matters]. Article 87a [Armed Forces]. Article 87b [Federal Defence Administration]. Article 87c [Production and utilisation of nuclear energy]. Article 87d [Air transport administration]. Article 87e [Rail transport administration]. Article 87f [Posts and telecommunications]. Article 89 [Federal waterways — Administration of waterways]. Article 90 [Federal highways]. Article 91 [Internal emergency]. Joint Tasks. Article 91a [Joint tasks — Responsibility for expenditure].
Article 91b [Education programmes and promotion of research]. Article 91c [Information technology systems]. Article 91d [Comparison of performance].
Article 91e [Cooperation in respect of basic support for persons seeking employment]. The Judiciary. Article 92 [Court organisation].
Article 93 [Jurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court]. Article 94 [Composition of the Federal Constitutional Court]. Article 95 [Supreme federal courts]. Article 96 [Other federal courts]. Article 97 [Judicial independence].
Article 98 [Legal status of judges — Impeachment]. Article 99 [Constitutional disputes within a Land ]. Article [Concrete judicial review]. Article [Ban on extraordinary courts]. Article [Abolition of capital punishment].
Article [Fair trial]. Article [Deprivation of liberty]. Article a [Apportionment of expenditures — Financial system — Liability].
Article b [Financial assistance for investments]. Article [Distribution of powers regarding tax laws]. Article [Apportionment of tax revenue and yield of fiscal monopolies]. Article a [Federal grants for local mass transit]. Article a [Budgetary emergencies]. Article [Federal budget]. Article [Interim budget management]. Article [Extrabudgetary expenditures]. Article [Increase of expenditures].
Article [Submission and auditing of accounts]. Article [Limits of borrowing]. State of Defence. Article a [Declaration of state of defence]. Article b [Power of command of the Federal Chancellor]. Such material limits are not derived from the constitution itself, but from doubtful theoretical assumptions underpinning a general theory of constitutions, 83 namely, the idea of constitution as a harmonious legal order or the fundamental decision of an absolute and non-regulable figure of constituent power.
The Drafting of the GG In historical continuity with the previous Constitutions, the Grundgesetz provides that it can be amended by law.
The published discussions do not address the distinction between constituent power and constituted powers, 86 the distinction between constitution and constitutional law, 87 or the idea that a constitution is a harmonious system. Rather, as a result of the historical events that occurred during the Weimar Republic and the rise to power of the Nazi party, 88 two aspects were important to the drafters. The discussion focused on whether such a provision would in fact be superfluous this was the argument advanced by the Social Democrat politician Rudolf Katz or whether such a provision was necessary in order to deny any future revolution its legitimacy that was the position of the Free Democrat politician, Thomas Dehler.
However, there was a general consensus that such a provision could not prevent revolutions. One would have to imagine further that, one day, Mr.
The development of the concept of constitutional identity under the GG The development of the concept of constitutional identity under the GG has been subtle and elusive. However, we can identify three main steps that have contributed to the development of the current concept of constitutional identity.
Second, the German Constitutional Court used the notion of constitutional identity in order to develop constitutional limits on the domestic application of European law and refered to the eternity clause in order to develop general limits on the transfer of sovereignty rights to the European level Section 5. In a final step, in its well-known Lisbon judgment and subsequent case law, the Court reintroduced the notion of constitutional identity in connection with the eternity clause in article 79 3 GG, expressly linked it to a certain idea of constituent power and further specified the content of constitutional identity Section 5.
The concept of constitutional identity in legal writing As a first step, the notion of constitutional identity has been reflected in legal writing. Constitutional Identity and the Solange and Maastricht decisions The second step is twofold. First, the notion of constitutional identity was used by the German Constitutional Court in order to develop limits on the domestic application of European secondary law Section 5.
Second, the eternity clause was used in order to develop general limits on the transfer of sovereignty rights to the European level 5. The notion was not used within the framework of the eternity clause, but within the framework of article 24 1 GG.
Article 24 1 GG allowed Germany to transfer sovereign powers to international organizations and was, at the time, the legal basis for participating in European integration.
In the Solange I decision, the Court had to decide whether the fundamental rights protected by the GG limited the supremacy of European law in the case at hand: regulations. It decided that, in principle, a regulation had to be in conformity with the fundamental rights of the GG, since there was at the time according to the German Court no adequate protection of fundamental rights at the level of the EU. This means that article 24 1 GG does not allow for the fundamental structure of the Constitution, which is the basis of its identity, to be changed through the legislation of an international organization in place of a constitutional amendment.
According to the Court, article 24 1 GG does not provide any authority—whether for the legislation of an international body or for the German legislature itself—to alter the basic structure of the Constitution by means of an amendment to the European treaties. The provision does not confer a power to surrender by way of ceding sovereign rights to international institutions the identity of the prevailing constitutional order of the Federal Republic by breaking into its basic framework, that is, into the structure which makes it up.
Das Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland
That means that, in the event that a treaty transferring sovereignty rights is contrary to the constitutional identity, an express amendment of the GG is necessary in order to transfer sovereignty rights in accordance with article 24 1 GG. One reason for this might be the fact that, in , article 23 1 GG was introduced as the legal basis for the transfer of sovereign powers to the European level. In this judgment, the Court examined for the first time the question whether European integration itself i.
The Court started to develop, at the basis of the eternity clause, general limits on the transfer of sovereignty rights to the European level. These limits, based on article 79 3 GG, included the democracy principle and—as discussed in an orbiter dictum —the loss of German statehood which is not expressly protected by article 79 3 GG and is read into the eternity clause. The possibility of amendment adopted by the constituted power and legitimation by means of a popular referendum was expressly rejected.
German constitutional history
In this respect, the constituent power has not granted the representatives and bodies of the people a mandate to dispose of the identity of the constitution. No constitutional body has been granted the power to amend the constitutional principles which are essential pursuant to article The Federal Constitutional Court monitors this. The manner in which the German people can exercise this will is not apparent from the judgment.
However, one can infer that the Court intended to refer to article of the GG. It provides: This Basic Law, which since the achievement of the unity and freedom of Germany applies to the entire German people, shall cease to apply on the day on which a constitution freely adopted by the German people takes effect.
This re-wording of article GG has led to intense discussions among legal writers of the purpose and function of the new article GG and its relationship to art icle 79 3 GG. The approach taken by the Court in its Lisbon judgment accords with the current line of thinking pursued by certain legal writers, and, in particular, with previous and current arguments by the Constitutional Court Justice, Peter M.
Huber, which argues that article 79 3 GG does not apply within the context of article GG.Article 86 [Federal administration].
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The criticism levelled against Schmitt is obvious. Artikel 1 Recht aus der Zeit vor Zusammentritt des Bundestages gilt fort, soweit es dem Grundgesetze nicht widerspricht. The notion of constitutional identity was first introduced during the period of the Weimar Constitution, in , by Carl Schmitt and Carl Bilfinger.
Bundesregierung der Bundesminister der Finanzen tritt. Der Parlamentarische Rat hat am Grundgesetz VII.
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