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Brandeis University Press, , pp. Bloom, Etan.

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Arthur Ruppin — , cul- tural identity, weltanschauung and action. Buber, Martin. On Judaism. Schocken Books, Calvary, Moses. Cohen, Jeremy. From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Christians in Medieval Christian Thought. Harrassowitz, Cohen, Richard I. The Jews in nineteenth century Europe, ed. Jonathan Frankel and Steven J. Cam- bridge: Cambridge University Press, , pp. Cutler, Allan and Helen Cutler. The Jew as the Ally of the Muslim.

Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, Diamond, James S. Homeland or Holy Land?: The Canaanite Critique of Israel. Bloom- ington: Indiana University Press, Eban, Abba. Voice of Israel. Horizon Press, Efron, John M. Kalmar and Derek J. Franzos, Karl E. Aus Halb-Asien. Stuttgart and Berlin, [].

Fromer, Jakob. Vom Ghetto zur modernen Kultur: Eine Lebensgeschichte. Charlotten- burg, Gerber, Noah S. Between Ethnogra- phy and Philology. Hammer-Schenk, Harold. Synagogen in Deutschland. Jahrhundert — Hamburg, Heine, Heinrich. Frederic Ewen. The Citadel Press, [], pp. Hertzberg, Arthur. The Zionist Idea. Atheneum, Hess, Jonathan M. Germans, Jews and the Claims of Modernity. New Haven: Yale University Press, Hoeflich, Eugen. Armin A.

Kalmar, Ivan D. Orientalism, the Jews and Synagogue Architec- ture. History, Culture, and Society 7. Orientalism and the Jews. Hanover and Lon- don: Brandeis University Press, Khazzoom, Aziza. Shifting Ethnic Boundaries and Inequality in Israel.

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Stan- ford University Press, Jahhun- derts, Frankfurt, Lanir, Niva. Lensing, Leo A. Levesque, Paul. Marchand, Suzanne L. German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship.

Cambridge University Press, Mendes-Flohr, Paul. Divided Passions: Jewish Intellectuals and the Experience of Moder- nity. Wayne State University Press, Moore, Deborah D. GI Jews: Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Morris-Reich, Amos. A response to Etan Bloom. Nietzsche, Friedrich. Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits, trans. Oppenheimer, Franz. Patai, Raphael. Ignaz Goldziher and His Oriental Diary.

Wayne State Uni- versity Press, Poppel, Stephen M. Zionism in Germany The Shaping of a Jewish Identity. Jewish Publication Society of America, Raz-Krakotzkin, Amnon. Reiss, Tom. The Orientalist: Vintage Books, Riegert, Leo W. German Jews in Post-Colonial Perspective. Robertson, Ritchie. Emancipa- tion and its Discontents.

Oxford University Press, Rosenzweig, Franz. On Jewish Learning. The Univer- sity of Wisconsin Press, Shlomo Krolik.

Sand, Shlomo. The Invention of the Jewish People. Verso, Saposnik, Arieh B. Scholem, Gershom. Frankfurt a. Schorsch, Ismar. Schroeter, Daniel. Reassessing an Idea, ed. Jeremey Cohen and Richard I. Ox- ford: The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, , pp. Segev, Tom. Shenhav, Yehouda. The Arab Jews: Shohat, Ella. Zionism from the Standpoint of its Jewish Victims. Stanislawski, Michael. Cosmopolitanism and National- ism from Nordau to Jabotinsky. University of California Press, Wassermann, Jakob.

Hans Kohn. Kurt Wolff, Weiss, Leopold. The Impressions of a Young European. Ikram Chaghatai. New Delhi: Adam Publishers, , p.

Windhager, Gunther. Leopold Weiss alias Muhammad Asad. Von Galizien nach Arabien Translated by Kate Sturge. Puritan Utopias of Seventeenth-century England and America, , p. This contextualizes the colonial trope of the lost tribes within Puritan millenarian theology and the complex historical colonial contact situation. It was David Chidester who began to relocate the discipline of comparative re- ligion in the context of colonial frontier discourses.

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While his first book, Savage Systems, explored comparative religion in one colonized periphery the southern African frontiers and his new study Empire of Religion focuses on the metropolitan center, both books apply the same fruitful methodological and theoretical ap- proach.

Jewish and Postcolonial Writing and the Nightmare of History, , p. A Short History, Colonialism and Comparative Religion in Southern Africa, , p. Imperialism and Comparative Religion, , p. These were by no means homogeneous, and underwent dramatic ruptures in the course of colonial history. Thus, the early narratives of colonial hegemony, proposed by missionaries, travellers and colonial officials from around into the seventeenth century, revolved around the negation of indigenous religion — the claim that it did not exist.

Another important topos found even in early colonial knowledge production, during the Catholic conquest of America, was the notion that the indigenous population originally consisted of Jews who had rejected the Christian gospel and thus become the allies of Satan.

Sometimes, this anti-Judaic model also identified the American indigenous people with the savage warrior peoples of Gog and Ma- gog who, according to the Apocalypse of John, will be recruited by Satan for his battle against Christ at the end of days. Travel Writing and Transculturation, The History of a Myth, These connotations took concrete shape in the idealization of the founding fathers, as synthesized by Cotton Mather in his monumental historical work Mag- nalia Christi Americana, first published in Through reference to Judaic proto- types, patriarchal masculinity and Puritan millenarianism entered an indissoluble union.

Nehemia Americanus: By idealizing and mythologizing the period of colonial origins, Mather could issue a summons to self-scrutiny and moral improvement. Mountains, Gender and American Envi- ronmentalism, See also Brunotte, Puritanismus und Pioniergeist. The seven books of the Magnalia extend from the flight out of England, the passage across the Atlan- tic and the foundation of the colony all the way to those wars with the Indians still raging in The whole can be read as a chronicle, as an epic or as a collec- tion of hagiographies of the founding fathers.

The mission he ascribes to the era of flight and the first genera- tion of founding fathers has both global historical relevance and deep religious significance: Mather begins his epic of the Golden Years in this manner: Nationality may represent worldly destiny for other Christians, but for Winthrop, in his portrayal by Cotton Mather as an exemplum fidei, it is the national — and collective, socially integrating — identity that defines the individual biography as sacred history.

Whereas tradition- ally events and figures from the history of Israel became allegories of the redemp- tion achieved by Christ, Mather — like Edward Johnson and John Cotton before 32 Mather, Magnalia Christi Americana, 2nd edition, , vol.

The cur- rent historical moment in New England becomes the focus for all significant histo- ries and all expectations of future salvation. Writing from a political situation characterized by destruction and depression, Cotton Mather invokes the founding period as an era of fulfillment. The ambivalence be- tween a cult of origins and a yearning for the apocalypse is symptomatic of his historical work. To understand this Judeocentrism and the ambivalent identification strategies of the early settler communities which accom- panied their colonial project, it is worth looking at a particular attitude towards Jews in mid-seventeenth-century England: Few assaults on the early modern European self-image left such lasting marks on views of Judaism as the relativization of the single Christian faith firstly by the Reformation and religious wars, secondly by the confrontation with reli- gious and cultural plurality during early colonialism.

The impact of both these shocks was severe in England. Strictly speaking, Hebraism refers to the use or peculiarities of the Hebrew language. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, English and New England Puritans rediscovered the Hebrew Bible, the past of the people of Israel, and thus also the Hebrew language.

New England Puritans gave their children He- brew names, retranslated parts of the Bible and developed what can only be called a cult of the Hebrew language.

Katz37 and Richard H. From that point on, these ten tribes were regarded as lost, and numerous legends took shape around their possible location. The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel: These frontier communities, bringing together reformers and heretics, often combined greater religious pluralism with attempts to approach the indigenous population.

Williams had left the Massachusetts colony for the wilderness, banished by the authorities as a proponent of religious tolerance. He spent periods of time living with the Narragansett tribe and learned their language.

The Jewish Encounter with Protestant America, , p. Yet if the theory that the Indians originated on American soil was not accepted, then the Puritans were forced to recognize them as the first colonists of the New World.

And if the Indians — in whatever manner — were descended from an an- cient civilization, such as the Greeks or the Hebrews, then their wild and uncivi- lized way of life could only be the expression of a radical degeneration. As early as , the English author William Strachey, in The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia, argued that the American Indians sprang directly from a seafaring descendant of Noah who had travelled to the extreme ends of the earth.

Strachey, like other authors before him, especially Marc Lescarbot,43 identifies Ham as the ancestor of the Indians on the grounds that, along with his son Canaan and all his descendants, Ham had been cursed and banished by Noah for failing to show sufficient honor to his father and not covering his eyes before his nakedness. The curse in Genesis 9: On the one hand, the American Indians were declared uncivilized due to their non-sedentary lifestyle; they did not build on the land, had no fixed settlements and mainly lived from hunting.

As a nomadic people, they stood outside the cultural order. On the other hand, the trope of the wandering people or the people in exodus of- fered much identificatory potential for the transatlantic travellers, through the re- ligious reference to the Israelites.

John Canup notes this inherent tension: European Concepts, —, , p. First, some conceive that this people are of the race of the ten tribes of Israel, that Sal- manasser carried captive out of their own country, … and that God hath, by some means or other, not yet discovered, brought them into America …. Secondly, another apprehension is, that the original of these Americans is from the Tartars, or Scythians, that live in the north-east parts of Asia; which some good geographers conceive is nearly joined unto the north-west parts of America.

In these, Paul assigns the Jews and their conversion to Christianity a crucial eschatological role. As he puts it in Romans God forbid. The History of a Myth, , p. God forbid: Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness?

For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.

And so all Israel shall be saved: For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins. The New England Puritans translated these prophecies into their own local and historical reality as part of a millenarian typology. From the beginning, the ques- tion of missionizing the heathens or Gentiles that is, the Indians implied the question of the conversion of the Jews, preparing the way for the millennium.

Thus, in the colonial transfer of millenarian ideas from Europe to North America, and from the Old Testament into the wilderness of New England now made an eschatological location , ethnological and theological knowledge converged with constructs of apocalyptic promise.

For, as the English millenarian Thomas Thorowgood put it: But what role should the New England Puritans play in this process, given that the majority of Jews were in Europe? It can be traced back to the sixteenth century in Portugal and Spain, although there it bore a clearly anti-Judaic stamp.

However, it attained real politi- cal importance only when the hopes of Jewish messianism became linked with those of Christian millenarianism. Some speculation on the routes to America taken by the ten tribes was based on the books of Kings and the Apocrypha 2 Esd.

Historian Lee Eldridge Huddleston has given the most detailed account of the events. European Concepts, —, , esp. At the time, Mon- tezinos recounted, he had paid no further attention to the matter. Shortly after- wards he had been captured by the Inquisition. When Montezinos revealed his Jewish identity, the Indian agreed to lead him to the holy people in the mountains.

There, Montezinos heard and saw relics of He- brew language and ritual. Upon his arrival, members embraced him and said in Hebrew: Through the intervention of Menasseh Ben Israel, a Portuguese rabbi living in Amsterdam, the account gave rise to two developments, one in Europe and one in New England.

Menasseh was requested by the Scottish millenarian John Dury, a trusted adviser of Oliver Cromwell, to write down his version of the lost tribes theory. Spes Israelis was also translated into many other languages and spread rapidly across Europe. This was the context in which Menasseh welcomed the appearance of the ten lost tribes in faraway America. European Concepts, —, , pp. Of special note for the issues discussed in this chapter is the similarity between Puritan and Jewish historical and salvific expectations, first studied by Richard Popkin.

Along with generous dona- tions from England and not least the founding of the New England Missionary Society, this knowledge provided new impetus for missionary activities.

With Eliot, the Puritanism of New England had acquired an element of postmillenarian belief in progress and the 57 See also Katz, Philo-Semitism and the Readmission of the Jews to England —, esp. At the same time, as Andrea Robertson Cremer has pointed out, the success of the Praying Towns could only benefit the colonial project: At the same time, they were concerned to consolidate and expand their religious, political and economic mission in the wilderness.

Indian Land and Identity in Natick, Massachusetts, — , , p. Native Americans and European Colonial Religion, , p. Significantly, the Israel-referenced typology did not in itself imply any specific interest in the Jews of contemporary Europe or of the colo- nies. As Huddleston notes: By relegating the Jewish people to a mythical past, one which served no other purpose but to direct attention to a Christian future, the typological mind robbed the living Jews of their ancient roots, their unique history, and their meaningful existence.

To some New England Puritans the Jewish past did not exist except insofar as it provided Chris- tendom with a mirror for its own time. We are as a city set upon a hill, in the open view of all the earth; the eyes of the world are upon us because we profess ourselves to be a people in covenant with God! Native Americans and European Colonial Religion, , pp. Jews and Puritans in Early America, This was a religiously founded gender order in which dissidents and rebellious women — such as Anne Hutchinson, who asserted the equality of the genders with respect to divine inspiration — were banished to the wilderness as heretics.

It would go beyond the scope of the present chapter to discuss the discursive equation of female dissidents and American Indians, both of them disorderly and untamed groups, that marked the antinomian crisis triggered by Hutchinson. In a election day sermon, for example, the Reverend Samuel Wakeman, founder of Hartford, Connecticut, set out the order of things in no uncertain terms: Those tribes had never known Jesus and had therefore not killed him, meaning that they had never been cast away from God.

As Frederic Cople Jaher has put it: It underlies Puritan anxieties around contact and acculturation. On the one hand, the American Indians were excellently adapted to life in the wilderness; in order to survive, newcomers had to learn from them and to a degree try to resemble them.

Four Centuries of an Uneasy Encounter, , p. A Story of Courage, Community, and War, Setbacks to missionary activity, growing con- flicts and minor wars with certain tribes, and the land rush of new settler groups and adventurers all reignited the old fear that the wilderness could exert an anti- moral effect on the settlers. In the fraught situation of the antinomian crisis and the first-generational conflict with the younger colonists who had grown up in the wilderness, the oligarchs of Massachusetts increasingly resorted to premillenarian notions of schism and catastrophe, and to the anti-Judaic motifs associated with these.

Thorowgood interprets the worship of idols and the practice of sacrifice, especially alleged human sacrifice and in particu- lar cannibalism — traditional stereotypes of colonial discourse — as symptoms of an Israel that has fallen away from God.

The influ- ential minister Increase Mather fulminated in The Production of the American Frontiersman In the middle third of the seventeenth century, several events and developments led to a decline in the popularity of the ten lost tribes theory with its postmillenar- ian coding: With this move, the Puritans also took up a demonizing and anti-Judaic variant of the lost tribes theory that had long lain dormant: As I have shown in more detail elsewhere,86 the doubling of pure and sublime nature on the one hand, impure and demonic nature on the other now hardened in Puritan writings.

Especially when the wilderness itself was condensed into a human body — its savage inhabitants — that actively combated the Puritan exo- dus, it became an utterly satanic space. As personi- fications of this frightening wilderness, in the rhetoric of war the American Indi- ans became a distorting mirror for complexes apparently long since overcome: The owners of the Massachusetts Bay Company had long been watching with disapproval the growth and uncontrolled lifestyles of the frontier communi- ties, and notions of the border between civilization and wilderness acquired a new urgency.

Frontier skirmishes were increasingly defined as divine tests. The discourse of war very evidently fused proto-racist with gendered and religious attri- butions, so that the conflict appeared not only as a God-given trial, but also as a 86 Brunotte, Puritanismus und Pioniergeist.

Thus, before their final defeat, the Pequot warriors were consistently portrayed by the Puritans as hyper- virile, brutal fighters. In contrast, as the war went on the discursive figure of the Puritan soldier shifted from a defender inexperienced in violence to an uncom- promising warrior who rationally appropriated the muscular masculinity of his savage opponents in order to annihilate them. Closing Remarks The complex and shifting appropriations of the biblical narrative of the ten lost tribes, moving from ancient Israel via England and South America into the North American colonies, vividly illustrate how discursive and geographical transfer of 91 Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War, , p.

Slotkin, Regeneration through Vio- lence: The Mythology of the Frontier, —, It should be borne in mind that the myth of the lost tribes of Israel, as well as early biblical descriptions of Jewish rites, taboos and cus- toms, had been deployed as stereotypes and models of the Other at a much ear- lier stage in the history of European colonialism, as Parfitt98 has shown.

As well as a discursive and imaginary connection between antisemitism and orientalism, we may also infer a discursive exchange between, and entangled history of, anti- Judaism and colonialism. Among the New England Puri- tans, I have argued, the constant and volatile switches between anti-Judaism and pro-Judaism intensified the shifting constructions of the Self by means of the Other with a very particular ambivalence.

Works Cited Bercovitch, Sacvan. The Puritan Origin of the American Self. Yale Uni- versity Press, Block, Sharon and Kathleen M. Redefining Sexu- alities in Early America. Brunotte, Ulrike. Puritanismus und Pioniergeist. Walter de Gruyter, Antisemitismus und Philosemitismus in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. Irene A.

Diekmann and Elke-Vera Kotowski. Ein mehrfacher Pluralismus, ed. Hans G. Topografien der Sehnsucht, ed. Claudia Ben- thien and Manuela Gerlof. Orientalism, Gender, and the Jews: Orientalismus, Antisemitismus und Geschlecht im Deutsch- land des Wulf D. Hund, Christian Koller, and Moshe Zimmermann. LIT, , pp. Canny, Nicholas P. From Ireland to America. Canup, John. Out of the Wilderness: Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, Cave, Alfred A. The Pequot War.

University of Massachusetts Press, Cheyette, Bryan. Diasporas of the Mind: Jewish and Postcolonial Writing and the Nightmare of History. Chidester, David. Savage Systems: Colonialism and Comparative Religion in Southern Africa. University Press of Virginia, Empire of Religion: Imperialism and Comparative Religion. University of Chicago Press, Cogley, Richard W. Cremer, Andrea D. Eliot, John. With a preface by Joseph Caryl. London, Feldman, Egal.

Dual Destinies: The Jewish Encounter with Protestant America. University of Illinois Press, Forbes, Allyn B. Winthrop Papers 3, — Massachusetts His- torical Society, Frederickson, George M. A Short History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer- sity Press, Violence and the Sacred, trans. Patrick Gregory.

Baltimore, ML: Johns Hopkins University Press, Glaser, Jennifer. Jews in Early America. Gookin, Daniel. Re- print. Munroe and Francis, , pp. Heimert, Alan. The Jews in America: Four Centuries of an Uneasy Encounter. Simon and Schuster, Eine analytisch-kritische Be- griffsanalyse. Antisemitismus und Philo- semitismus in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed.

Hoberman, Michael. Jews and Puritans in Early America. Holstun, James. A Rational Millennium: Puritan Utopias of Seventeenth-century Eng- land and America. Huddleston, Lee El. Origins of the American Indians: European Concepts, — University of Texas Press, Isaac, Benjamin H. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. Jaher, Frederic C. A Scapegoat in the New Wilderness: An Introduc- tion. Waltham, MA: Katz, David S. Philo-Semitism and the Readmission of the Jews to England — Clarendon Press, Paolo Bernardini and Norman Fiering.

Berghahn, , pp. Kolodny, Annette. A Psychological Approach. Kruer, Matthew. Genocide and English Colonialism, — Mather, Cotton. Magnalia Christi Americana. Thomas Parkhurst, Magnalia Christi Americana, 2nd edition, 2 vols. Hartford, CN: Mather, Increase.

Printed by John Foster, , pp. McGinn, Bernard. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, Meer, Nasar ed. Racialization and Religion: Special issue, Ethnic and Racial Studies Dispossession by Degrees: Indian Land and Identity in Natick, Massa- chusetts, — Pagels, Elaine.

The Origin of Satan: Random House, The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Parfitt, Tudor. Brandeis Univer- sity Press, , pp. Black Jews in Africa and the Americas. Harvard Uni- versity Press, Philbrick, Nathaniel.

A Story of Courage, Community, and War. Viking, Pointer, Richard W. Encounters of the Spirit: Native Americans and European Colonial Religion. Popkin, Richard H. Perez Zagorin. University of California Press, , pp. Millenarianism and Messianism in English Literature and Thought — Brill, Pratt, Mary Louise. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation.

Routledge, Rohde, Achim. Orientalismus, Antisemitismus und Ge- schlecht im Deutschland des Said, Edward. Schrepfer, Susan R. Mountains, Gender and American Environmental- ism. University Press of Kansas, Shurtleff, Nathaniel B. William White, Slotkin, Richard. Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the Frontier, — University of Oklahoma Press, Stoler, Ann Laura. Race and the Education of Desire: Durham, NC: Duke University Press, Strachey, William.

The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia. Printed for The Hakluyt Society, Thomas, James M. A Challenge to the Field. Thorowgood, Thomas. Printed by W. Slater, Toon, Peter. Puritan Eschatology to , ed. Peter Toon. James Clarke, , pp. Williams, Roger. A Key into the Language of America, ed.

John J. Teunissen and Eve- lyn J. Wayne State University Press, []. From beneath her cap the long black tresses fall loose over her shoulders — this being a hallmark of unmarried Jewesses. This depiction alludes to the pogroms in imperial Russia which since the s had been on the increase, and the Jewess is portrayed as the victim of these violent rampages. While the lin- guistic element is to the fore with regard to the sheer concept of the Beautiful Jew- ess and its narration throughout a text, pictorial depictions focused on the particu- larity of her beauty — on the deep-set dark eyes and the equally dark and mostly curly long hair.

As stereotypical elements they are condensed into a visual canon and emerge as the signet of the Beautiful Jewess. She is possessor of a specific — ex- otic — beauty that distinguishes her from her non-Jewish surroundings and makes her visible in a way that connects her with the Orient, which marks her as alien and different. My thesis is that the Beautiful Jewess is to be regarded as a figure on the border- line — as a figure that in the historical development of this image motif paces off the terrain of Jewish conflicts in a non-Jewish environment.

To return once more to the cover designs that we examined at the beginning, as Florian Krobb high- lighted in his study of narrative prose, both depictions emphasize the beauty of the young Jewess. Insofar as the Beautiful Jewess specified no one individual person, she served proxy for Jewry as a whole. At the same time, in the pictorial designs, we can repeatedly observe ten- dencies to make her an agent of certain personifications.

She is most vividly present in depictions of Salome, for instance by Gustave Moreau, Salome, ; and Salome Dancing before Herod, The impact of this on the Jewish communities was not only a new edition of what was well-known to them as a potential threat but also caused and intensified migration of Eastern European Jews to the West and thus dissolution of the structural order of Jewish communities.

It was only with advent of the First World War that there emerged an altered perception of the Ostjuden on the part of Western Jews who constituted the bourgeois and cultivated elements of Jewish society.

Glasenapp draws attention to the fact that most of the tales were trans- lated from Yiddish and Hebrew, which constituted an improvement. The dangerous situation of Eastern European Jewry is made explicit through the soldiers in Cossack apparel and their unambiguously threatening stance, which insinuates both the motif and motive of rape.

The figure of the Beautiful Jewess be- fore them represents Eastern European Jews — and she above all brings public awareness to the West of the danger with which these Jews are threatened. More- over, the negative connotations that Ostjuden carried for acculturated Jews of the West had in the meantime given way to assumption of a paternalistic attitude to- ward the former. Western Jews increasingly perceived the Jews of Eastern Europe as being victims of Russian politics due to the restrictions placed on them.

The figure of the Beautiful Jewess thus is discussed in the context of the chang- ing relationship between Eastern and Western European Jewry, serving as meta- phor for a shift in boundaries. A lithograph by Max Liebermann fig. In the background are some sketchily drawn houses and in front of them is a battle scene of armed men on horseback. It was founded in Berlin in at the instigation of Paul Nathan. It was through the financial contributions of German Jews that the cultural condition of Jews in Eastern Europe was to be improved.

In April , during the Easter holidays, there were antisemitic excesses committed in the municipality of Kishinev in Moldavia. In Octo- ber there was another pogrom in the city.

For Western European Jews the czarist policy, and thus that of Russia, was one of their central arguments for be- coming soldiers in the First World War. Also in the case of Liebermann the First World War was an occasion for him to take up the theme of the dangerous situa- tion facing Eastern European Jewry.

The Eastern European Countenance — a Counter-draft Conditioned by late-nineteenth-century antisemitism, the self-conception of German Jews in those years before the First World War was above all the result of crises and conflicting identities. The development of po- litical and cultural Zionism was revolutionary for the traditional East-West rela- tionship.

From a Zionist point of view the Eastern European Jews were a strong- hold of spiritual and cultural inspiration; they came to epitomize a lived Jewish folklore which West European Jewry had largely lost owing to their assimilation. During the po- groms Jews were murdered and businesses and households were plundered and destroyed. Like many thousands of other Jews, and in the general popular enthusiasm for the war, at its outbreak Struck had volunteered for armed service.

After brief duty on the front, he was in- stalled in the press bureau of the Eastern High Command, which was stationed in Lithuania, first in Bialystok and then Kaunas. Here he functioned as censor and was a translator of Yiddish. According to Arnold Zweig, the plan for the book emerged directly after appearance of the portfolio.

In a letter to Martin Buber in , Zweig wrote that insofar as I could acquaint myself with them by way of the Lithuanian Jews, I will be writing at length about the Eastern Jews and availing myself of an already existing op- portunity, as it were, namely some fifty new lithographs by Struck.

Despite their direct confrontation with Eastern European Jews, whose life was one of poverty and squalor, the writer Zweig and the graphic artist Struck put forward an idealized and romanticized image of the Ostjuden which was instrumental to the cultural Zionist 18 There was a second edition in It was illustrated with 52 lithographs.

This edition was reprinted in Wiesbaden Fourier Verlag. Before appearance of the book there were individual parts of it featured in the maga- zine Der Jude, which was published by Martin Buber.

Arnold Zweig was born in Glogow in and died in East Berlin in He was a cultural Zionist with socialist leanings. Baer in Frankfurt. The indi- vidual and discrete portraits are juxtaposed with the text and finally serve to con- jure the group portrait of a family encompassing both sexes and all ages and which represents an ideal image of Eastern Jewry.

A total of nine lithographs portray young women in idealized fashion fig. Each of these female figures accords with the typology of the Beautiful Jewess — for instance the bust portrait of a young woman with headscarf fig. Against a light background her face, in oblique pro- file, exhibits dark melancholy eyes; her headscarf evinces full dark hair.

Each im- age — predominantly head and bust portraits — stands alone, is separated from the text, and takes up an entire page. The body, shoulders and neck are only sketchily 22 Struck committed to his diary the direct experience he had of the poverty and misery in which Eastern European Jews lived. See Ost und West 1, , columns 1—4. The figures almost never make eye contact with the observer, thus intensify- ing the impression of their isolation.

The depictions focus on the eye area — the face and head are modeled solely through black lines and their painterly reading of the subject as well as through smudged grays, and the omnipresent omissions are made conspicuous through the white background of the page. With only a few ex- ceptions the pictures were signed by Struck, thus demonstrating his own artistic presence and authority over the drawings and also in the sense of their being illus- trations.

The likenesses are neither captioned so as to identify the subject nor are there any other indicators regarding when and where they might have had their provenance.

The images thus take on the quality of timeless apparitions. The figure is seated on a throne adorned with the Star of David, she wears a crown and holds in her hands the Torah scroll. Beautiful, self-assured and denoted through the symbols of Judaism, this figure represents the hopes of Zionist Jewry and its ideals regarding a newly founded state and community.

This type of depiction clearly reveals the la- tent possibilities in this character as proxy for the Jewish collective and thus a per- sonification of the nation.

Inherent to the figuration is creation of a positive self- image that is not only proud and self-confident but furnished with a vision of the future and thus helping to create a Zionist counter-discourse, which stood in op- position to the centuries-old negative imagery of Jewry from an anti-Jewish per- spective.

Lilien Berlin: Lattmann, , With invasion of the American troops in he committed suicide. The fact that the picture appeared in Ost und West — the authoritative journal of cultural Zionism — likewise emphasizes the national significance of the figure. She became a figure in which were negotiated the new relations between East and West with respect to their significance for Jewry.

As such she became a counter-draft to her original meaning. Works Cited Aschheim, Steven E. Tradition und Mo- derne der Juden Osteuropas Briefwechsel aus sieben Jahrzehnten. Band I, — Schneider, Cookies are small text files, which are stored locally in the cache of the internet browser of the site visitor. The cookies enable the recognition of the internet browser. The data collected using the eTracker-Technologies are not used without the separately granted consent of the data subject in order to personally identify the visitor of this website and will not be aggregated with personal data about the holder of the pseudonym.

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Notification about the use of cookies On our websites we partly use cookies in order to design the visit to our website more attractive and to enable the use of certain functions.After brief duty on the front, he was in- stalled in the press bureau of the Eastern High Command, which was stationed in Lithuania, first in Bialystok and then Kaunas.

Clarendon Press, Zweig, Arnold and Hermann Struck. For the rest, in religious matters Rebb Schmull and the peasants made concessions to one another. This was also true for non-Jews. Origins of the American Indians: ASCHHEIM Although these are merely marginalia, exotica at the extreme fringes of main- stream Jewish choices, I have spent some time discussing them not only because they are intriguing cases but also because they illustrate a certain openness and fluidity of identitarian possibilities rather different from our own hardened ideo- logically driven times.

The painting Temptation fig. Postcolonial reading or not, ghetto literature was an important medium for the discussion of Jewish assimila- tion and modernization, and continued to progress as a literary genre among Jew- ish writers throughout the second half of the nineteenth century.

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