CLASSICAL PHYSICS PDF
An increasing number of people who think seriously about physics peda- Classical mechanics deals with the question of how an object moves when it. These notes were written during the Fall, , and Winter, , terms. They are indeed lecture notes – I literally lecture from these notes. They combine. present classical mechanics as physics, not as applied mathematics. Although velocity, we say that the acceleration is an invariant in classical mechanics.
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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Gregory's Classical Mechanics is a major new textbook for undergraduates in mathe- matics and physics. It is a thorough, self-contained and highly readable. of classical physics, concentrating on topics most important to modern physics, some of Some of the most important ideas in physics are conservation laws.
He wrapped a photographic plate in black paper and placed various phosphorescent salts on it; all results were negative until he used uranium salts that later blackened the plate. This actually had nothing to do with phosphorescence as the effect persisted even when the mineral was kept in the dark, while other non-phosphorescent salts of uranium and even metallic uranium, also blackened the plate.
This new radiation was more complicated: Nonetheless, Ernest Rutherford demonstrated that the intensity of radiation diminished with time according to a simple exponential decay formula, differing only by a single factor later called the half-life for that material and decay mode.
It was soon found that there were three types of radiation, named alpha, beta and gamma, in increasing order of their ability to penetrate matter. Gamma radiation was found to be purely high-energy electromagnetic like X-rays while the other two reacted differently to electric and magnetic fields.
The alpha rays were found to be positively charged helium nuclei while the beta rays were shown to be high-energy electrons. Radioactive decay is found only with some elements with an atomic number of 83 bismuth or higher. Alpha decay is only seen with heavy elements that ultimately end with non-radioactive lead. Rutherford demonstrated that many of these decay processes actually changed one element into another: It is found to consist of only a very few special frequencies and these are uniquely characteristic of the gas material.
In a complementary manner, cool gases absorb these same frequencies when exposed to a continuous light spectrum. This implies that the atoms in a gas can exist in discrete energy states. Anders Angstrom measured the frequency lines of hydrogen and found they fitted closely to a numerological formula suggested by Johann Balmer that involved the differences in the inverses of squared integers.
This is now viewed as the most significant achievement of QM but there are major problems with this solution that still exist today.
It is the co-existence of these eleven experiments, which challenges physicists to develop a coherent and consistent model of reality. So far, quantum theorists have created two mathematical schemes one for each set of experiments that work well in their own domain but have long resisted a single, unified interpretation.
He had modified a Crookes tube invented about 20 years earlier that accelerated electrons to include a thin aluminum window, protected by thin cardboard, when he noticed a fluorescent effect on a nearby cardboard screen painted with barium platinocyanide.
He speculated that the tube might be emitting an invisible ray of unknown nature hence 'X' for the unknown. The maximum energy of the produced X-rays is limited by the energy of the incident electron, which is equal to the voltage on the tube times the electron charge, so an 80 kV tube cannot create X-rays with energy greater than 80 keV.
When the high-energy electrons hit the metal target, X-rays are then assumed to be created by two different atomic processes: This process produces an emission spectrum of X-rays at a few discrete frequencies, sometimes referred to as its spectral lines. The spectral lines generated depend on the target anode element used and are called characteristic lines.
This process is similar to fluorescence but now at a frequency well above UV. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons.
Bragg and his son, William L. Bragg found that crystals bent their path in the same way as gratings bent visible light: When X-rays impinge on an atom, they induce accelerations in some of the orbital electrons as do all EM waves. If these electrons are only elastically scattered they do not leave their long-term stable orbits but they do generate interactions with other remote electrons; i.
The Braggs found that regular crystals, at certain specific wavelengths and incident angles, produced intense peaks of reflected radiation known as Bragg peaks. Bragg explained this result by viewing the crystalline solid as a set of discrete parallel planes of atoms separated by a constant parameter d. It was proposed invoking wave interference ideas that the incident X-ray radiation would produce a Bragg peak if their reflections off the various planes interfered constructively.
In , Compton explained this shift by attributing particle-like momentum to the X- rays using the photon concept that Einstein had used for his Nobel prize-winning explanation of the photoelectric effect. In Scotland, G. Thomson observed the circular interference patterns created by a thin gold film, while at Bell Labs New Jersey C. Davisson and L. This whole terminology is based on the assumption that an entity has moved from the source to the screen.
The wavelike explanation is based on analogies with large-scale water waves moving through two parallel gaps. It is the existence of this macroscopic analogy and the simplicity of the mathematical analysis that leads to the universal assumption that this interference experiment is the quintessential demonstration of the presence of real waves.
In such a medium, waves are collective variations in a physical property such as pressure or displacement from the average height that communicates locally: The key to this analysis is that any localized variation is seen as the arithmetic sum of two or more independent variations that have arrived at the point via independent pathways in the water case, one fluctuation through each of the gaps.
Critical to the success of all such experiments is that the source remains coherent — that is, it fluctuates consistently at the same frequency and all fluctuations are generated at very similar intervals, which in practice means the same source for all waves.
In the water-wave case, it is obvious that the principle of locality applies — a water wave must go through a gap for it to arrive at the target point at the screen , as water molecules are known to only interact at very short distances.
Locality is an additional assumption when this model is applied to light that is never seen in passage. More sophisticated versions of this experiment have been conducted, using light or atomic particles, where the effects at the receiving screen are so far apart in time that it is unlikely that there is ever more than one object anywhere in the system from start to finish.
This is usually interpreted as even more mysterious: When particles are used in this experiment, they always appear at the screen as point events, as is seen with low-density light - when the intermediate situation prior to final arrival is interpreted as due to waves, then the dualistic interpretation is that we are observing objects acting as both waves and particles: It can be seen that this is a crucial experiment, which is often referred to by all authors writing on quantum theory.
Even the first ones involving electrons did not occur until the s [15, 16, 17], the first interference experiments with neutrons occurred in the s [18, 19] while similar experiments involving atoms and molecules had to wait until the s [20, 21].
The arriving electrons individually produced flashes as they hit the final fluorescent film, which were eventually photographed. If the particles were classical spinning objects, one would expect the distribution of their spin angular momentum vectors to be random and continuous. Each particle would be deflected by a different amount, producing some density distribution on the detector screen. Instead, the particles passing through the Stern—Gerlach apparatus are deflected either up or down by a specific amount.
The observed discrete deflections were interpreted as indicating that particles possess an intrinsic angular momentum or 'spin' that can only take a finite set of values; i. These measurements also showed that the 3D spatial directions of this angular momentum are exclusive, which means that the measurement of the spin along the z-axis destroys information about a particle's spin along the x and y axes.
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The observed results showed that the deflected silver atoms were deflected into two distinct groups, indicating that these silver atoms had a spin of one half quantum. The problem of quantum spin was addressed in depth in our fifth paper , when a new physical model of the electron also led to a new interpretation of the positron - the positively charged electron.
This error has persisted with the mathematical assumptions, which underpin quantum mechanics; these assertions will be demonstrated herein. As we shall see, it was the challenge to some of these assumptions that led to the evolution of quantum theory. The Universe was perceived as a giant machine that existed in a framework of absolute space and time, all of which was viewed by God throughout eternity.
Complicated motions of any part even in biological systems were to be understood as simple, automatic movements of some of this machine's inner parts, even though they may be too small to be observed by humans. It was also believed that parts could be isolated from the rest of the universe.
Book 1000 Solved Problems in Classical Physics pdf
Few realize Newton first introduced this through the concept of abrupt impulse that he later made continuous to accommodate planetary motion . Our real world is dominated by electromagnetic forces that were still to be discovered in Newton's time. Physics has retained the idea of continuous forces called here the Continuum Hypothesis both mechanically and in all interactions at all scales to preserve the massive intellectual investment in the mathematical body of techniques called calculus.
This led to the introduction of the one-dimensional parameter usually written as t that appears everywhere throughout CM. Newton added to this simple model by positing that this universal time flowed forth at a constant rate everywhere and all times everywhen.
It is interesting that many formulations of CM pay no attention to the results possible at a specific time but either look at averages often over a complete cycle, in periodic systems or integrate the t parameter away over a large often infinite range of values; this is consistent with experimental practice. This encouraged Newton to invent the concept of instantaneous changes in motion-quantities at one instant of time velocity and acceleration.
This involved the algebraic product of an invariant quantity mass and the instantaneous numerical value of the velocity, at one instant of time. However, the continuum mathematical limit zero time separation has NO correspondence in experimental determinations of velocity but this has not prevented the momentum concept from playing a central role in the mathematics of both classical mechanics and quantum theory.
All the problems of QM can be traced to this implicit assumption, as reflecting both macroscopic and microscopic reality. The concept of momentum has been embedded in classical physics since Newton made this revolutionary suggestion in the Principia but hiding behind this central concept is the deeper assumption of continuous velocity defined at every moment, as required by the calculus.
The definition of velocity V[t] at a single instant of time t is actually only a mathematical abstraction.
Even more sinister, is the assumption that the instantaneous momentum is a well-defined component of the classical and therefore quantum state.
This assumption needs a very strong experimental confirmation because real atomic physics studies systems, at such small spatial scales, that tiny differences in time intervals become significant.
Reality does not require that an electron have numerical values for all its properties at every instant of time i. This difference illustrates the deeper metaphysical assumptions being made about the very nature of material interactions: Fortunately, with CM the dimensions of space and time are so large that the tiny time differences can be readily ignored. The present approach rejects the universal continuum assumptions underlying the use of the calculus for modeling physical reality; discrete mathematics is better to model discrete physical events.
The return here to Newton's original impulse model of interactions leads to finite, discrete changes in velocity, whenever electrons interact .
This revision eliminates the symmetry between position and momentum that has been assumed from the original mathematical formulations of modern quantum theory and plays a key role in Fourier transforms of this quantity ; these are always assumed to be well represented by a continuous function of a local time parameter. Classical mechanics obsessed on instantaneous interactions, such as collisions between two objects.
At best, a single time-difference can be introduced to simplify the pairwise interaction. Several previous papers in this series have emphasized the need for a two-time model of the EM interaction, where distinct times for each electron involved even in a pairwise interaction must be maintained. However, a prior paper  showed that finite time delays as in the EM interaction are incompatible with the assumption that forces act continuously between localized inertial bodies.
The idea of simple causality single source always appealed to humans because of our own intentionality that underpins many human actions, across both space and time. This is an important section because the proposed new quantum theory of the electron herein UET is based on challenges to these standard assumptions that are also very rarely made explicit.
It was the omission of electron sources by Einstein, which enabled him to re-derive the Lorentz transformations known to preserve Maxwell's calculation of the speed of light ; this allowed him to shatter the ancient views of space and time. It did not. It is ironic that it is Maxwell's theory that has led to the worst anomalies of our understanding of the quantum world. Modern physics is still obsessed exclusively with field theories.
Thus special relativity rejects the absolute simultaneity assumed by classical mechanics; and quantum mechanics does not permit one to speak of properties of the system the exact position, say other than those that can be connected to macro scale observations. Position and momentum are not things waiting for us to discover; rather, they are the results that may be obtained by humans performing certain procedures. These two proposals have shattered the very foundations that most humans have used for thousands of years to talk about the reality of the world.
Only the retarded solutions are retained because human memory only accesses events in the past, so it is impossible for humans to conduct advanced experiments but this is insufficient to dismiss all these possibilities from Nature. This innovation relied on the recently developed mathematical techniques of partial derivatives. It should also be noted that Maxwell's aim like Leibniz was also to abolish instantaneous action - he did not; he created only a delayed field theory of magnetism.
This basic, but flawed, assumption, was later retained in all quantum models of the hydrogen atom. It is also important to know that Maxwell had rejected the idea of point sources of electricity.
The fact that the definition of force field densities requires all electric charges to go to the zero limit does not seem to bother too many physicists, who are also still content to talk about EM waves propagating across empty space. What Is the Theory of Relativity?
Albert Einstein's theory of relativity is one of the most important discoveries of the contemporary age, and states that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers.
As a result of this discovery, Einstein was able to confirm that space and time are interwoven in a single continuum known as space-time. As such, events that occur at the same time for one observer could occur at different times for another.
Discovered by Max Plank in , quantum theory is the theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behaviour of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level. The nature and behaviour of matter and energy at that level is sometimes referred to as quantum physics and quantum mechanics. Plank discovered that energy exists in individual units in the same way that matter does, rather than just as a constant electromagnetic wave.
Thus, energy was quantifiable.
The existence of these units, called quanta, act as the basis of Plank's quantum theory. Nuclear Physics Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that deals with the constituents, structure, behaviour and interactions of atomic nuclei. This branch of physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons.
It is used in power generation, nuclear weapons, medicines, magnetic resonance, imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, and more. Who Discovered Nuclear Physics? The history of nuclear physics as a distinct field from atomic physics begins with the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in The discovery of the electron one year later indicated that the atom had an internal structure.
With this, studies began on the nuclei of atoms, thus nuclear physics was born. Nuclear physicists examine only the nucleus, not the atom as a whole.
Source 4. Atomic Physics Atomic physics is a branch of physics that deals with the composition of the atom apart from the nucleus. It is mainly concerned with the arrangement and behaviour of electrons in the shells around the nucleus. Thus, atomic physics mostly examines electrons, ions, and neutral atoms.
One of the earliest steps towards atomic physics was recognizing that all matter is comprised of atoms. The true beginning of atomic physics is marked by the discovery of spectral lines and the attempt to explain them. This resulted in an entirely new understanding of the structure of atoms and how they behave.Their antenna patterns were measured in an anechoic chamber and the measurements were found to be in good agreement with the analytical and simulated results.
Sjaak Uitterdijk Comments: One such device, has no moving parts and, in the air, operates on electrical energy. For instance, superposition is mathematically taken into account in QM, but not in CM. Take a clock, for instance, where there are parts that make up the whole. Alexander Unzicker Comments: The Lorentz magnetic force law has not been precisely verified.
Gravedad Longitudinal Authors: Brian Strom Comments: From the behavior of permanent magnets, it is assumed that this movement will also reduce the total energy of the combined energy fields to a minimum.
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