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CHEMISTRY PROJECT FOR CLASS 12 .PDF

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CLASS XII A, Mother Divine Sr. Sec. Public. School (Rohini), regarding his project titled. “Determination of the Contents of Cold Drinks”. Teacher's Signature. Chemistry Project 12th - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text Foaming Capacity of Soaps investigatory projects chemistry class 12 cbse . Investigatory Project - Chemistry Class XII. Uploaded by vjkumar Download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate .


Chemistry Project For Class 12 .pdf

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Explore Chemistry Investigatory Projects Experiments Class 12 CBSE, Chemistry Projects, Organic Science Fair Projects, Expo Models. Chemistry Project Report| Chemistry NEW Topics| CBSE School Chemistry Projects| Projects on Chemistry, Class IX, X, XI & XII Chemistry Project Reports, . CLASS XII Entrepreneurship Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, It systematically develops product ideas to satisfy the aim of the project and.

Professional trend-spotters charge big money for reports and industry trend updates. But there are some entrepreneurs who spot these trends themselves. There are so many ways to spot trends. Ways in which an entrepreneur spots trends 1.

Read trends They regularly read the leading publications and websites affecting their business. This could include industry publications, trade association sites, major newspapers, key business magazines, thought leaders and influential bloggers.

So many trends start overseas London, Paris, Tokyo , so they make sure that they read about what is going on in those cities. At first, they scan information from a wide variety of sources - from international news on down to niche bloggers focused on specific aspects of their industry.

They use tech—tools like RSS feeds, e-mail newsletters or websites and forums to keep on top out of all and get the information they want. They understand quickly which sources are valuable and which should be avoided.

Talk trends Talking to people is an equally important trend-spotting tactic. They also take advantage of social networking tools like social network websites and forums. They even start or join groups on the networks and see what people are buzzing about and about the latest trends. It's also important to talk to customers and prospective customers, both online and offline.

They use social media or online surveys to get input on what customers are thinking, buying, craving and doing. They also use social network websites and forums to identify key influencers and trendsetters in their target markets. They make it a point to regularly go where their target customers hang out.

If the customers are teenagers, that might be the local mall. The entrepreneur spends some time simply watching and observing. What are people eating, doing, wearing, using? What stores or restaurants draw crowds and which sit empty? Creativity Creativity is important to entrepreneurs because it is the first stage in the process of innovation, providing the stimulus for opportunity discovery and new venture creation.

As new entrants, entrepreneurs often justify themselves upon the same dimensions as creativity: Arguably, one of the first tasks demanded of an entrepreneur is to manifest creative ability through the conceiving of new product-market opportunities and unique value propositions.

From these initial acts of creativity, entrepreneurs must build effective organizations that can repeatedly bring ideas to commercially valuable forms in order to survive and grow.

Idea germination, 2. Preparation, 3. Incubation, 4. Illumination and 5. Idea germination: This is the seeding stage of a new idea. It is the stage where the entrepreneur recognises that an opportunity exists. The idea germination takes place according to interest, curiosity of the entrepreneur according to which opportunity is explored and exploited to its best potential.

Creative idea germinates besides the interest, the need of a specific problem or area of study. Like Mansukhbhai Prajapati, who thought of a non-stick pan made from clay and a clay refrigerator that works without electricity. He wanted to explore the idea of making the refrigerator which will be eco-friendly.

He conceived this idea in , but the final product could take shape only in On the basis of the idea, interest and curiosity the need is adjudged by the entrepreneur and he starts looking for the answer to implement the idea.

That happens because the seed of curiosity has taken form of an idea, the entrepreneurs foresee the future of the product. Mansukhbhai's brain stormed immediately that, like his wife there must be thousands of homemakers who would need a non- stick-TAVA. And the idea of clay fridge was considered equally strong and he decided to go ahead.

This is the subconscious assimilation of information. This is the transition period. The entrepreneur starts thinking about the idea and implementation in his sub-conscious mind. Manshukhbhai went through the process of studying the pros and cons of manufacturing the product before he had launched it. In this period of illumination the idea re-surfaces in realistic way and entrepreneur comes out with viable plan to give practical shape by collecting raw-material, arranging funds, policy—making for the implementation of idea.

In this case of Mansukhbhai it was important to have enough of funds in hand to buy and keep in store enough raw-material.

Also called the validation or testing stage. This is where the idea is verified to prove that it has value. This is the most difficult phase of creativity as obstacles begin to appear. This is the developing stage in which knowledge is developed into application. In this case, when the fridge was developed acceptance in the market for such a product was a big obstacle. It is the process of entrepreneurship which involves the translation of a useful idea into an application which has commercial value.

It takes persistent effort to work out analytically the details of the enterprise or service, to develop marketing strategies, to organize finances and strategize operations. Elements in the innovation process: Carefully identifying the product or service features, design as well as the resources that will be needed. Obtaining the required resources, materials, technology, human or capital resources. Applying the resources in order to accomplish the plans and delivering results.

The provision of value to customers, reward employees, and satisfy the stake holders. Selecting the right opportunity The entrepreneur should look into various factors before deciding on the opportunity. Even if the opportunity looks promising, an entrepreneur should look into the environmental factors before choosing the best opportunity. I L Across: Someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it.

Set of circumstances that make it possible to do something. Process through which something becomes different. Make changes in something established, especially by introducing new methods. Synonym for feasible. Synonym of inventiveness. An economic or productive factor required to accomplish an activity. A sum of money saved or made available for a particular purpose. Financial gain.

The ability to do something well; expertise. Synonym of rivalry. Something that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. Amount invested in business. Very short answers. Answers to these questions should not exceed 15 words. What factors are involved in the process of sensing an entrepreneurial opportunity? Define the term environment scanning. List the environmental factors affecting external environment. What is the meaning of trend spotting?

What is required to convert an idea into opportunity? What is Idea generation? Short answers. Answers to these questions should not exceed 50 words. What is the purpose to scan the environment? What are the factors involved in sensing opportunities?

Draw the enterprise process diagram. Explain it. Answers to these questions should not exceed 75 words. Enlist the various sources which lead to the emergence of basic ideas.

Write the meaning of product identification in terms of business opportunity. What are the factors an entrepreneur has to keep in mind whilst assessing the market? What are the various ways in which an entrepreneur spots trends? Long answers. Answers to these questions should not exceed words.

Rather it is dependent upon several various environmental factors. Explain them. Explain creative process. What is Innovation and explain the elements of innovation process? Very long answers. Elaborate the factors involved in sensing opportunities. Examine the sources from where business ideas emerge.

Discuss the steps involved in the investigation of ideas. What do you understand by Trend Spotting? What are the ways by which entrepreneurs can spot trends? Explain in detail Idea Fields. Aditi started her boutique business near an industrial area and she was not getting clients as she had expected. What are the factors which have been ignored before starting the boutique? Suggest the various factors that she has to look into before venturing into business.

Raghav had always wanted to manufacture an innovative, energy efficient fan. He was looking into various options and has finally narrowed it down to one option.

He understands that the entire idea would have to follow a process. Identify and explain the process. Varun decided to start his own venture and was looking into various ideas. Explain to him various sources from where he can get some good business ideas. Application—based questions: Vinay was a young entrepreneur who wanted to start a new business with an initial investment of 25 lakhs. He was not sure of what business he has to undertake.

His friend suggested seeking the help of professionals who would spot the latest trends in the market and give him an idea, but Vinay decided to do it by himself. Suggest the various ways by which he can do it. Conduct a survey in your colony by asking people if they face any particular problem and see if you can find a solution to that problem.

Think of an innovative product and conduct a survey in your colony and analyse whether it will be accepted in your neighbourhood. Imagination will take you everywhere.

download chemistry investigatory project for class 12

Because of being a bundle of recurring needs and wants, every person is engaged in some kind of activity with a view to earn his living and satisfy the material and social requirements.

Activity, a symbol of human life may broadly be categorized into: Activities undertaken to earn monetary gains are called economic i. Activities done out of love, care, affection, self-satisfaction, emotions, sympathy, patriotism etc. Types of Economic Activities Activities which are inspired mainly by economic consideration can be classified in three broad categories: In a way all economic activities related to the production and distribution of goods and services undertaken for monetary gains, are said to be business.

Activities which are inspired mainly by economic consideration can be classified in three broad categories: Production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation, may also refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale.

Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircrafts, house hold appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users — the "CONSUMERS". Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic system. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit.

In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy.

In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation. An intangible commodity a type of economic activity that is intangible is not stored and does not result in ownership.

A service is consumed at the point of sale. Services are one of the two key components of economics, the other being goods. Examples of services include the transfer of goods, such as the postal service—delivering mail, and the use of expertise or experience, such as a person visiting a doctor. This sector constitutes the basic infrastructure which is a must for smooth flow of business activities. In the recent past, the role of service sector in the Indian economy is growing faster than agriculture and industry.

Not a new phenomenon we've been doing it for centuries! The trade that occurred among the most primitive humans has evolved considerably over time. In a way all economic activities related to the production and distribution of goods and services undertaken for monetary gains are said to be business. Different Authors, Different Opinions Business is "whole complex field of commerce and industry, the basic industries, process and manufacturing and the network of ancillary services, distribution, banking, insurance, transport and so on which serve and interpenetrate the world of business as a whole.

Hooper Business may be defined as "an activity in which different persons exchange something of value whether goods and services for mutual gain or profit. Irrespective of size, nature, scale or ownership, an activity is referred as business if it exhibits the following essential characteristics: Business must be done regularly.

The actual business situation is affected by a variety of uncontrollable external factors casting favourable or unfavourable impact on business.

Thus, the risk element keeps a businessman vigilant and going. Forms of business organisation Setting-up a business is not an easy task. An enterprise is a separate and distinct unit, institutionally arranged to conduct any type of business activity.

It needs to combine the necessary things such as materials, tools, equipment, working space and bring together all of them in a systematic and effective manner to accomplish the entrepreneur's desired objective.

This legal structure determines the extent of ownership and responsibility of proprietor s. Appropriate form of organisation strongly influences the enterprise's success and future prospects. Once selected, changing the 'form' is quite a complex, time consuming and costly affair. Forms of enterprises From the point of view of ownership and management, business enterprises may be broadly classified under three categories.

Private individuals thus could start a venture as: Either the whole or most of the investment in these undertakings is done by the Government s.

These enterprises have the following forms of organisation: Resources are mostly borne equally. Thus, one of the first decisions that an entrepreneur will have to make for his new venture is how the business should be structured.

We know all businesses must adopt some legal configuration that defines the: This decision will have long-term implications. In making a choice, entrepreneur will want to take into account the following: From the entrepreneur's point of view the most commonly opted out forms for starting a new venture are: An overview of the five basic legal forms of organization is as follows: Sole proprietorship "The one-man control is the best in the world if that man is big enough to manage everything.

One Man Show Tom Monaghan, the founder of Domino's Pizza, had a tough childhood, was raised in orphanages and foster homes. Jim left within the year, but Tom hung on, surviving two near - bankruptcies and a fire. Started as sole and today a MNC — a long successful journey of 'one big man'. Historically, it appears that business first started with this form of organization. One of the oldest, simplest and most commonly used forms of business organization which is owned financed, controlled and managed by only one person is called as sole proprietorship, single entrepreneurship or Individual proprietorship.

Elbourne "Sole proprietorship is a business unit whose ownership and management are vested in one person. The individual assumes all risks of loss or failure of the enterprise and receives all profits from its successful operations.

Characteristics of sole proprietorship: As 'sole' means single and 'proprietor' means owner, this type of business is one person show exhibiting following features: This business is exclusively owned by a single person. Though, competent people can also be employed for efficient management.

All investment is made by the proprietor. Legally, the proprietor and proprietorship are one and the same business and owner exists together, thus with owner's death, business too dies. The sole proprietor alone is entitled to all the profits and losses of business. This form of business generally has a limited area of operation due to: Before opting for sole proprietorship, an entrepreneur should carefully compare and evaluate pros and cons of this form. Basically, this type of form is suitable when: Capital requirement is limited 2.

Market is local 4. Goods are of artistic nature or demands customized approach 5. Quick decision—making is necessary 6. Size of the venture is small. As a youngster, Onassis had immigrated to Argentina from Greece. He learned Spanish at night and sold tobacco by day. At merely 15, he landed a big tobacco order and reinvested in his petty business.

As he accumulated more money, his small business was eventually built into his great financial empire. However, in order to start a sole proprietorship an entrepreneur requires certain industry specific licenses. A few general factors are: Business name: Sole proprietors are under no obligations to select a trade name for their business.

How so ever they are free to do so if they desire to. Service tax registration: Form ST 1 is to be filled for registration if the taxable services are more than 10 lakh for a financial year. PAN Card no. Payment of taxes: Due to the fact that legally, a sole tradership and a sole trader are a single entity, the sole trader bears the taxes of the business. People waiting in the scorching heat just to buy a pair of shoes?

From Rags to Riches One dreary November morning in , Satya left his home in Jamshedpur and came to Calcutta with little more than the clothes on his back. He wore a pair of corduroy pants, a shirt and a pair of sturdy shoes made by his father. Before he left home, his mother had pressed in his hands a few hundred-rupee notes, which he brought with him. Today, Satya Brata Dey is a millionaire, a crorepati.

And what gives him the greatest satisfaction is that, he provides jobs for people in Wes t Bengal-a state where there are very few industries and over five million unemployed.

She believed in herself and encouraged Satya to do the same. Remember that. Always win. He won. And he won against great odds. His shoes were so sturdy that they could last twenty years. It was this apprenticeship under a master shoemaker like his father that taught Satya very early in life, a priceless craft.

He would have laughed if someone had told him back then, that someday, he would create jobs for hundreds of people with this priceless craft that he learned from his father.

When he remembers his father bending over his worktable making shoes day after day, tears glisten in his eyes. Tears of love and pride. Today, Satya would give anything to be able to hold those callused, wrinkled hands in his own and invite him to come and see the little boy. Whereas Satya manages a business worth crores, what he is most proud of is that even today he can make shoes with his own hands.

From his beloved father, Satya learned another important lesson that would come in very handy for him later in life — the dignity of labour. Because of his background, Satya has great respect for the working man. In his business, he treats his employees and workmen like family members and they in turn give him their undying loyalty. That is one of the secrets of his success. Start your own business?

Starting a business was looked down upon. Businessmen were seen as people who amassed wealth at the cost of others. They took too much risk. What if the business failed? What would you do then?

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On the other hand, a secure government job was quite another thing. Once you got your foot in the door, nobody could fire you and whether you worked or not the government paid you and even when you retired the government paid you and even when you retired the government took care of you. It gave you a pension.

You were always a well-looked after guest. You had a job. That was truly low down in the prestige ladder of the community. He should learn skills that would get him a job instead of doing this. Thank goodness he had learned the trade and art of making good shoes. There were no jobs available and last thing he wanted to do was join the ranks of the unemployed.

But Satya had never considered looking for a job. Satya dreamed big but reality hit hard Ever since Satya was four or five he knew he wanted to have his own business. At the corner of a deserted street, he spotted a rundown showroom that was for rent.

He used the money his mother gave him to pay the rent and moved in. The paint on the walls was peeling. It was dingy, dirty and dimly lit. The windows were filthy and you could hardly see through them. The floor had several layers of dust caked with moisture. But for Satya, it was his dream showroom. It was his place. Every night Satya washed his pants and shirt and hung them to dry.

Often his corduroy pants were still wet in the morning. He wore the wet pants anyway and hoped that his body heat would dry them during the course of the day.

He swept and mopped until the floor shone. He was determined not to borrow money from anybody. He sold the chappals at Rs.

After a few months Satya made a profit of Rs. In those days New Market used to close by 6 pm. After 6 or 7 pm the whole area used to be dark and deserted. But Satya opened his shop before anyone else and kept it open long after others had closed theirs.

He did this even if there were no customers. What if there was one customer who needed shoes late in the day when the other shops were closed?

He kept his margins low so that he could attract a large number of customers. Even though his shoes were meant to attract the low-income customers, many ministers and businesspeople also bought his shoes. Soon satisfied customers brought their friends and family and his business started to grow by leaps and bounds.

He had a winning combination for success-the quality was good and the price was right. A shrewd businessman that Satya is, he kept other manufacturers products as well, so the customers could compare and see that sreeleathers shoes were cheaper and better. Customer service is of prime importance Customer service is always very important at Sree leathers stores. Satya offers his customers tea, coffee or coke at his stores so that they would sit, spend some time and buy more than they had originally come to buy.

Satya told me the story of a woman who was standing outside his store one day waiting for a sari shop across the street to open. His salesman invited her in and asked her to sit and wait in the store. She came in and sat down in the comfortably air-conditioned store.

The salesman offered her coffee. She had some. She started to look at the different shoes displayed in the store. Without anyone trying to sell her anything, she ended up buying 12 pairs of shoes. We make our customers feel good.

One day a man was in a hurry to catch a train to Raipur. He came to the store bought his shoes and rushed to the train station. But soon he came back and bought four more pairs. Cut out the middleman Since Satya manufactures his own shoes there are no middlemen to pay. He can afford to sell his shoes at a lower price than Bata and other large companies who have huge overheads.

If he has to import something from abroad such as material for soles, which he gets from the UK, he imports it directly from the manufacturer there. Thus once again he avoids paying the middlemen. He keeps his employees happy and motivated Satya firmly believes that motivating the staff and keeping them happy is critical for the success of any business.

A disgruntled or unhappy employee will not provide good customer service. And customer service is what keeps people coming back and that is what makes the business successful. I treat them like family. I keep them in good humour. I spend time talking with them and help solve their problems. They feel like they are the owners.

He loses his temper if his vendors and suppliers are not paid on time. The small bureaucrats and government employees harass for no reason whatsoever, he says. To illustrate his point he told me the following story. Satya was getting a new showroom constructed. He had taken permission from the Calcutta Municipal Corporation and everything was legal and above board.

The construction started and then one day out of the blue, some policemen arrived and ordered the work to be stopped. They demanded a huge bribe. But when Satya came to know of it he was furious and refused to pay a single paisa. He contacted some higher authorities in the police department and the government and the policemen left.

The work continued. Then one day a couple of the Calcutta municipal corporation employees arrived. They started finding faults with the construction.

Now they wanted a bribe. Once again he had to approach the higher authorities to solve the problem. These kinds of harassment and hassles cause unnecessary delays and make doing business stressful. Growing, growing ,franchising Sree leathers has about 15 outlets in Eastern India.

He has only one showroom of his own; the rest are all franchises. There is such a great demand for his franchises that people come with recommendations from the Prime Minister and the Finance Minister.

Some people come with briefcases full of money requesting a franchise. But Satya Brata is very choosy about giving franchises because the quality and his hard won reputation are very important to him.

But in these countries they are sold as non-brand name shoes. Satya has reached a point in life when expansion has taken on a new meaning and purpose.

He makes enough money and expansion would only mean more stress for him. But creating jobs is important to him. He feels that it would be selfish of him not to expand. He wants to create as many jobs as he can. He believes that creating jobs is the best service he can do for the society.

He employs about people in his factory and outlets and in addition, if each of his fifteen franchises employs about ten people, then Satya has created employment for at least people. Sree leathers is worth several crores today. The young man who came to Calcutta with only the clothes on his back and a fistful of money has come a long way.

His secret?

Hard work, dignity of labour and big dreams. Partnership form of organisation has developed due to the inherent limitations of sole proprietorship i. Business acumen and wealth seldom meet in one person. This, desirable combination probably led to the emergence of Partnership form of business. A partnership is an association of two or more persons to carry on, as co-owners, a business and to share its profits and losses.

Thus, two or more persons may form a partnership by making a written or oral agreement to carry a business jointly and share its proceeds.

To Quote Authors Shubin "The relationship between persons who agree to carry on a business in common with a view to private gain is partnership. I would also like to extend ma gratitude to the entire Chemistry department of New Horizon Public School for their constant support. There are many different types of vinegar, each starting from a different original sugar source e.

Titration introduction: In this project, I have determined the amount of acid in different vinegars using titration, a common technique in chemistry. Titration is a way to measure the unknown amount of a chemical in a solution the titrant by adding a measured amount of a chemical with a known concentration the titrating solution.

The titrating solution reacts with the titrant, and the endpoint of the reaction is monitored in some way. The concentration of the titrant can now be calculated from the amount of titrating solution added, and the ratio of the two chemicals in the chemical equation for the reaction. Titration theory: To measure the acidity of a vinegar solution, we can add enough hydroxyl ions to balance out the added hydrogen ions from the acid.

The hydroxyl ions will react with the hydrogen ions to produce water. Indexing Guidelines Google Scholar uses automated software, known as "parsers", to identify bibliographic data of your papers, as well as references between the papers. Incorrect identification of bibliographic data or references will lead to poor indexing of your site. Some documents may not be included at all, some may be included with incorrect author names or titles, and some may rank lower in the search results, because their incorrect bibliographic data would not match correct references to them from other papers.

To avoid such problems, you need to provide bibliographic data and references in a way that automated "parser" software can process.

At this time, we're unable to effectively index multiple abstracts on the same webpage or multiple papers in the same PDF file. Likewise, we're unable to index different sections of the same paper in different files. Google Scholar supports Highwire Press tags e. Use Dublin Core tags e. To check that these tags are present, visit several abstracts and view their HTML source. The title tag, e. Don't use it for the title of the journal or a book in which the paper was published, or for the name of your repository.

This tag is required for inclusion in Google Scholar. The author tag, e. Don't use it for the author of the website or for contributors other than authors, e.

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Author names can be listed either as "Smith, John" or as "John Smith". Put each author name in a separate tag and omit all affiliations, degrees, certifications, etc. At least one author tag is required for inclusion in Google Scholar. The publication date tag, e. Dublin Core equivalents are DC. Regardless of the scheme chosen, these fields must contain sufficient information to identify a reference to this paper from another document, which is normally all of: a journal or conference name, b volume and issue numbers, if applicable, and c the number of the first page of the paper in the volume or issue in question.

As with journal and conference papers, you need to provide sufficient information to recognize a formal citation to this document from another article. For all document types, the guiding principle is to present your article as it would normally be cited in the "References" section of another paper. Likewise, the name of the journal should be written as "Transactions on Magic Realism" or "Trans.

Omission or unusual presentation of key bibliographic fields can lead to mis-identification of your articles.To Quote Authors What better way to reach out to your target audience!

Market research is a key factor to maintain competitiveness over competitors. A change in social, legal, technological aspects etc. Each file must not exceed 5MB in size.

On the other hand, a secure government job was quite another thing. Why not share!

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