CANADIAN WOOD FRAME HOUSE CONSTRUCTION PDF
CANADIAN WOOD-FRAME. HOUSE CONSTRUCTION. CMHC offers a range of housing-related information. For details, call or visit our. Publication information. Department/Agency, Canada. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Title, Canadian wood-frame house construction. Publication. Canadian Wood-Frame House Construction and Glossary of Housing Terms this PDF version includes information on site planning, foundations, framing.
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pixia-club.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. VERBAL REASONING. R.S. Aggarwal. The book «s unique for its coverage of all types of questions A Modern pixia-club.info Verbal. Building Technology–Wood Frame Envelopes. CMHC–Canada's leading source of housing information. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.
These members, referred to as studs , wall plates and lintels, serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floors, ceiling and roof. Insulation beyond that which can be accommodated within a 3.
Interior loadbearing walls are framed in the same way as exterior walls. This is usually done only for partitions enclosing clothes closets or cupboards to save space. Since there is no vertical load to be supported by partitions, single studs may be used at door openings.
These members provide a nailing support for wall finish, door frames and trim. The preferable spacer material is rigid insulation.
Wall Sections Edit The complete wall sections are then raised and put in place, temporary braces added and the bottom plates nailed through the subfloor to the floor framing members. The braces should have their larger dimension on the vertical and should permit adjustment of the vertical position of the wall.
A strip of polyethylene is often placed between the interior walls and the exterior wall, and above the first top plate of interior walls before the second top plate is applied to attain continuity of the air barrier when polyethylene is serving this function. This second top plate usually laps the first plate at the corners and partition intersections and, when nailed in place, provides an additional tie to the framed walls.
Where the second top plate does not lap the plate immediately underneath at corner and partition intersections, these may be tied with 0.
It utilizes long continuous framing members studs that run from sill plate to eave line with intermediate floor structures nailed to them,  with the heights of window sills, headers and next floor height marked out on the studs with a storey pole.
Once popular when long lumber was plentiful, balloon framing has been largely replaced by platform framing. While no one is sure who introduced balloon framing in the U. Mary's Catholic Church in Chicago using the balloon framing method.
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Alternately, the balloon frame has been shown to have been introduced in Missouri as much as fifty years earlier. Historians have fabricated the following story: As Taylor was constructing his first such building, St. Mary's Church, in , skilled carpenters looked on at the comparatively thin framing members, all held together with nails, and declared this method of construction to be no more substantial than a balloon.
It would surely blow over in the next wind! Though the criticism proved baseless, the name stuck. Although lumber was plentiful in 19th century America, skilled labor was not.
The advent of cheap machine-made nails, along with water-powered sawmills in the early 19th century made balloon framing highly attractive, because it did not require highly-skilled carpenters, as did the dovetail joints , mortises and tenons required by post-and-beam construction.
For the first time, any farmer could build his own buildings without a time-consuming learning curve. It has been said that balloon framing populated the western United States and the western provinces of Canada.
Without it, western boomtowns certainly could not have blossomed overnight. It is also a fair certainty that, by radically reducing construction costs, balloon framing improved the shelter options of poorer North Americans.
For example, many 19th century New England working neighborhoods consist of balloon-constructed three-story apartment buildings referred to as triple deckers. The main difference between platform and balloon framing is at the floor lines. The balloon wall studs extend from the sill of the first story all the way to the top plate or end rafter of the second story. The platform-framed wall, on the other hand, is independent for each floor.
Balloon framing has several disadvantages as a construction method: The creation of a path for fire to readily travel from floor to floor. This is mitigated with the use of firestops at each floor level. The lack of a working platform for work on upper floors. Whereas workers can readily reach the top of the walls being erected with platform framing, balloon construction requires scaffolding to reach the tops of the walls which are often two or three stories above the working platform.
The requirement for long framing members. In certain larger buildings, a noticeable down-slope of floors towards central walls, caused by the differential shrinkage of the wood framing members at the perimeter versus central walls. Larger balloon-framed buildings will have central bearing walls which are actually platform framed and thus will have horizontal sill and top plates at each floor level, plus the intervening floor joists, at these central walls.
Wood will shrink much more across its grain than along the grain. Therefore, the cumulative shrinkage in the center of such a building is considerably more than the shrinkage at the perimeter where there are much fewer horizontal members. Of course, this problem, unlike the first three, takes time to develop and become noticeable. Present day balloon framing buildings have considerably higher heating costs, due to the lack of insulation separating a room from its exterior walls. Purlins are also found even in plain timber frames.
Cruck frame[ edit ] A "true" or "full" cruck half-timbered building in Weobley , Herefordshire , England: The cruck blades are the tall, curved timbers which extend from near the ground to the ridge. A cruck is a pair of crooked or curved timbers  which form a bent U. More than 4, cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of cruck frames are used; more information follows in English style below and at the main article Cruck. True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters.
A full cruck does not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, and extend to the ridge. Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, and are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam, very similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways.
See also: hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building. Half-timbered houses, Marbach am Neckar , Germany Half-timbered houses, Miltenberg im Odenwald, Germany Rural old railway station timber framing style in Metelen , Germany Aisled frame[ edit ] Interior of a two-aisled market hall, Chipping Campden , Gloucestershire , England Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts. These interior posts typically carry more structural load than the posts in the exterior walls.
This is the same concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church , where the center aisle is technically called a nave.
However, a nave is often called an aisle, and three-aisled barns are common in the U. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, and typically have purlins supporting the rafters. Half-timbering[ edit ] Half-timbered wall with three kinds of infill, wattle and daub , brick, and stone: The plaster coating which originally covered the infill and timbers is mostly gone. This building is in the central German city of Bad Langensalza. The frame is often left exposed on the exterior of the building.
Similar methods to wattle and daub were also used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis French , to name only three.
Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times. The sticks were not always technically wattlework woven , but also individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but generally was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine.
Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where stone rubble and mortar were available. Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive.
Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster , weatherboarding , tiles , or slate shingles. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner.
Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings. The decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road , several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings. Gallery of infill types: Decorative fired-brick infill with owl-holes Ordinary brick infill left exposed Stone infill called opus incertum by the Romans Some stone infill left visible The wattle and daub was covered with a decorated layer of plaster.
Like wattle and daub, but with horizontal stakes Here, the plaster infill itself is sculpted and decorated. Gallery of some named figures and decorations: Simple saltires or St.
Andrews crosses in Germany Two curved saltires also called St. Andrews crosses during repairs to a building in Germany: The infill has been removed. Several forms of 'man' figures are found in Germany, this one is called a 'wild man'.
A figure called an Alemannic woman Wild man center , half-man at the corners Relief carvings adorn some half-timbered buildings. The foot braces are carved with sun discs Sonnenscheiben , a typical design of the North-German Weser-Renaissance.
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Close studding is found in England, Spain and France Square-panel half-timbering with fired brick infill: Square paneling is typical of the Low German house , and is found in England. Cruck framing can be built with half-timber walls. This house is in the Ryedale Folk Museum in England.
History of the term[ edit ] The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for this style. One of the first people to publish the term "half-timbered" was Mary Martha Sherwood — , who employed it in her book, The Lady of the Manor, published in several volumes from to She uses the term picturesquely: " This juxtaposition of exposed timbered beams and infilled spaces created the distinctive "half-timbered", or occasionally termed, " Tudor " style, or "black-and-white".
Oldest examples[ edit ] The most ancient known half-timbered building is called the House of opus craticum. Opus craticum was mentioned by Vitruvius in his books on architecture as a timber frame with wattlework infill. It uses long continuous framing members studs that run from the sill plate to the top plate, with intermediate floor structures let into and nailed to them.
Once popular when long lumber was plentiful, balloon framing has been largely replaced by platform framing. It is not certain who introduced balloon framing in the United States. However, the first building using balloon framing was possibly a warehouse constructed in in Chicago , Illinois , by George Washington Snow.
Van Osdel 's s attribution, as well as A. Andreas' History of Chicago, to credit Snow as 'inventor of the balloon frame method'. Mary's Catholic Church in Chicago using the balloon framing method. In the s, Hoosier Solon Robinson published articles about a revolutionary new framing system, called "balloon framing" by later builders.
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Robinson's system called for standard 2x4 lumber, nailed together to form a sturdy, light skeleton. Builders were reluctant to adopt the new technology, however, by the s, some form of 2x4 framing was standard.
Historians have also fabricated the following story:  As Taylor was constructing his first such building, St. Mary's Church, in , skilled carpenters looked on at the comparatively thin framing members, all held together with nails, and declared this method of construction to be no more substantial than a balloon.
It would surely blow over in the next wind! Though the criticism proved baseless, the name stuck.
The advent of cheap machine-made nails, along with water-powered sawmills in the early 19th century made balloon framing highly attractive, because it did not require highly skilled carpenters, as did the dovetail joints , mortises and tenons required by post-and-beam construction. For the first time, any farmer could build his own buildings without a time-consuming learning curve.
Without it, western boomtowns certainly could not have blossomed overnight. However, balloon framing did require very long studs and as tall trees were exhausted in the s, platform framing became prevalent. The main difference between platform and balloon framing is at the floor lines. The balloon wall studs extend from the sill of the first story all the way to the top plate or end rafter of the second story.
The platform-framed wall, on the other hand, is independent for each floor. Wood pieces are typically connected with nail fasteners, nails, or screws; steel pieces are connected with pan-head framing screws, or nuts and bolts. Preferred species for linear structural members are softwoods such as spruce, pine and fir. Recently, architects have begun experimenting with pre-cut modular aluminum framing to reduce on-site construction costs.The sheathing membrane should be installed so that it intercepts any moisture that gets behind the cladding the first plane of protection and directs it outward over flashings.
Wall sections[ edit ] The complete wall sections are then raised and put in place, temporary braces added and the bottom plates nailed through the subfloor to the floor framing members. Without it, western boomtowns certainly could not have blossomed overnight.
Ensure that excavation does not affect the foundations of adjacent buildings. Contact your building official to inspect the completed house framing. Locate the pit so that it can be sealed from the conditioned space to prevent soil gas and radon from entering the house.