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in a high school English class, for example, could work with the book over If you come across such a word Pocket Book of Integrals and Mathematical. Architect’s Pocket Book This Page Intentionally Left Blank Architect’s Pocket Book Charlotte Baden-Powell Second ed Architect’s Pocket Book Charlotte Baden-Powell Second edition. Architecture I. Title Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Baden-Powell. 'It is twelve years since I recommended to Charlotte Baden-Powell that the future editions of her little Architect's Pocket Book would be safe in the hands of.

Architectural Pocket Book

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View the dedicated microsite for free sample chapters and videos - pixia-club.info This handy pocket book brings together a. Buy Architect's Pocket Book 4E (Routledge Pocket Books) 4 by Ann Ross, Jonathan Hetreed, Charlotte Baden-Powell (ISBN: ) from Amazon's. This handy pocket book brings together a wealth of useful information that architects need on a daily basis – on-site or in the studio. It provides clear guidance.

Allow a minimum mm between hob and sink and any tall cupboards for elbow room. Cooker should not be positioned near door or in front of window. Keep electric sockets well away from sink area. Provide lighting over worktops. Install extractor fan over hob. Turning circles depend upon the speed the vehicle is travelling, the hand of the driver left hand differs from right , and overhang, particularly at front and back of vehicle.

Allow 1. Appeals should be a last resort. They take time and cost money. Most appeals are not successful. Permission is unlikely to be given for development on green-belt land or on good quality agricultural land, or for access to main roads. Inspectors judge appeals on their planning merit.

They are unlikely to be swayed by personal considerations. Making an appeal Appeals must be lodged within 6 months of the date of the decision. The Secretary of State SoS can accept a late appeal, but will do so only in exceptional circumstances. Appeals are normally decided on the basis of written representations and a visit to the site by the planning inspector.

However, where the Appellant or the LPA do not agree to this procedure, then the inspector can arrange for a Hearing or a Local Inquiry. Written representation The appeal form, with documents and plans, should be sent to the Planning Inspector PI with copies of all papers also sent to the LPA.

The PI may contact interested people such as neighbours and environmental groups for their comments. When the Inspector is ready, a site visit is arranged.

This may be an unaccompanied visit if the site can be viewed from public land or an accompanied visit when the site is on private land and where both the Appellant and the LPA are present.

Hearings Hearings are less formal and cheaper than a local inquiry and legal representatives are not normally used. Local inquiry This procedure is used if the LPA and the Appellant cannot decide on a written representation and the PI decides a hearing is unsuitable. Details of the inquiry must be posted on the site, and the LPA will inform local papers and anyone else likely to be interested. Statements or representatives may be asked for from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food MAFF where the proposal involves agricultural land, or the Health and Safety Executive HSE where the proposal involves the storage of dangerous materials.

All witnesses or representatives may be questioned or cross-examined. At the inquiry, anyone involved may use a lawyer or other professional to put their case. The Inspector will make visits to the site, alone, before the inquiry. After the inquiry, the Appellant and the LPA may ask for a visit with the Inspector to discuss any points raised about the site or surroundings.

However, if there is an inquiry or hearing, the Appellant can ask the LPA to pay some or all of the costs. The LPA may do likewise. The SoS will only agree to this if the party claiming can show that the other side behaved unreasonably and put them to unnecessary expense. The Inspector sends a report to the SoS with a recommendation as to whether or not the appeal should be allowed. New evidence may put new light on the subject. In these cases, both parties will have a chance to comment before a decision is made and the inquiry may be re-opened.

This challenge must be made within 6 weeks of the date of the decision. To succeed, it must be proved that the Inspectorate or the SoS have exceeded their powers or that proper procedures were not followed.

Planning 49 Notices must be served by the building owner to the adjoining owner or owners, which may include landlords as well as tenants, at least 2 months before the work starts or 1 month in advance for new work as described in 3 and 4 above.

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There is no set form for the Notice, but it should include: The adjoining owner cannot stop someone exercising their rights given them by the Act, but can influence how and when the work is done. Anyone receiving a notice may give consent within 14 days, or give a counternotice setting out modifications to the proposals.

If the adjoining owner does not reply, a dispute is assumed to have arisen. The Award When consent is not received the two owners agree to appoint one surveyor to act for both sides, or two surveyors, one to act for each side.

Surveyors appointed must take into account the interests of both owners.

The surveyors draw up and supervise the Award, which is a statement laying down what work will be undertaken and how and when it will be done.

The Award is served on all relevant owners, each of whom is bound by the Award unless appeals are made within 14 days to the county court. Act This is done by recommending buildings of special architectural or historic interest to be included on statutory lists compiled by the Secretary of State, for National Heritage.

Buildings may be listed because of age, rarity, architectural merit, method of construction and occasionally because of an association with a famous person or historic event. Sometimes whole groups of buildings such as a model village or a complete square may be listed. All buildings largely in their original condition before are likely to be listed, as are most between and Later on the criteria became tighter with time, so that post only exceptional buildings are listed.

Grades Listed buildings are graded as follows: Listing applies to the entire building, including anything fixed to the building or in the grounds before 1 July See p.

Residential listed buildings may be VAT zero-rated for approved alterations. For advice on how to get a building listed or other information, consult the Department of Culture, Media and Sport. The mandatory Requirement is highlighted in green near the beginning of each document. The remaining text is for guidance only. The Building Inspectorate accept that if this guidance is followed then the requirement is satisfied.

There is no obligation to comply with these guidelines providing evidence is produced to show that the relevant requirement has been satisfied in some other way.

The purpose of the Building Regulation is to secure reasonable standards of health, safety, energy conservation and the convenience of disabled people.

A separate system of control applies in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Also, all construction workers could expect to be temporarily off work at least once in their working life as a result of injury.

The purpose of the CDM Regulations can be summarized as follows: These include designers, planning supervisors, contractors and sub-contractors. This can be anyone competent, and may be a member of the design team, contractors or even the client. They may also, if requested by a client, advise on the appointment of consultants and contractors as to their competence and resources in regard to CDM matters.

If architects are to act as Planning Supervisors they must ensure that they receive certified HSE training, as failure to comply with the regulations could lead to criminal prosecution. It is still something of a minefield, as harmonization at the beginning of the twenty-first century is not complete. Listed alphabetically below are the organizations and standards involved, which may help to clarify the current situation. This organization assesses and tests new construction products and systems which have not yet received a relevant BS or EN.

The Certificate gives an independent opinion of fitness for purpose. Holders are subject to 3-yearly reviews to ensure standards are maintained. This was the first national standards body in the world. It publishes British Standards BS which give recommended minimum standards for materials, products and processes. These are not mandatory, but some are quoted directly in the Building Regulations see also EN below.

All materials and components complying with a particular BS are marked with the BS kitemark together with the relevant BS number. BSI also publishes codes of practice CP which give recommendations for good practice in relation to design, manufacture, construction, installation and maintenance, with the main objectives being safety, quality, economy and fitness for purpose.

These are similar to ENVs. This mark was introduced by the CPD, and is a symbol applied to products by their manufacturers to indicate their compliance with European member state regulations. It has nothing to do with quality or safety unlike the BS kitemark. If the CE mark has a number attached, this signifies that the product has been independently tested. This is a directive produced by the European Commission introducing the CE mark. EN — Euronorm also known as European Standard.

European Standards are published by the CEN for a wide range of materials. Prospective standards where documentation is still in preparation are published as European prestandards ENV. These are normally converted to full ENs after a 3-year experimental period.

Members of this organization issue ETAs. EOTA polices organizations nominated by member states to make sure they all apply the same tests and level of expertise when preparing ETAs.

This organization prepares International Standards for the whole world.

These are the criteria and methods used by the BBA when testing products. QA — Quality Assurance. BS EN lays down procedures for various organizations to conform to a specification and thus acquire QA for a production or a service.

Planning 59 Sustainability, energy saving and green issues A checklist of matters which are considered relevant at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Living in equilibrium with the environment will become the key issue in constructing buildings. Sustainability combines social, economic and environmental goals; it involves governments, the commercial world, communities and individuals.

Local planning should integrate housing with workplaces and shops to reduce the need for CO2 carbon dioxide emitting transport. Ideally the site should be reasonably level to promote walking and bicycling. Hills might be used for wind farms and, where possible, land set aside for local food production.

Facilities should be provided for the collection of materials for recycling. Transport is responsible for at least 30 per cent of all UK CO2 emissions. To discourage the use of fossil-fuelled private cars, sites should be close to public transport routes. Walking distances to bus stops should ideally be within m. Electric cars and buses offer the possibility of zero CO2 emissions if the electricity is supplied from renewable sources.

The electric bicycle is at present the most efficient mode of transport, using only 0. The provision of dry and secure bicycle storage will encourage cycling. Openings on north and north-eastern sides should be kept to a minimum to conserve heat.

Guard against heat losses at night from large areas of glazing. South-facing glazing should ideally be unshaded in winter from 9 am to 3 pm. In summer, solar shading is needed to reduce the demand for mechanical ventilation.

Optimize thermal efficiency with the use of good insulation, triple glazing and airtight detailing. Services, carefully designed, can play a major role in energy conservation. Low energy design can include on-site generation of heat and power with solar collectors, photovoltaic cells and windmills — systems that produce no CO2 and once installed are cheap to run.

Use radiant heat rather than warm-air systems. Use gasfuelled condensing boilers for space heating. Where possible, reclaim heat wasted from cookers and refrigerators.

Hot water systems should be designed to avoid long heatwasting pipe runs. Domestic controls should include individual thermostatic radiator valves; 7-day programmers with separate settings for space heating and hot water; outside sensors and boiler energy managers BEMs. Avoid air conditioning — it is seldom necessary in the UK except for very special atmospheric or conservation needs.

Use natural ventilation or passive stack ventilation systems with humidity control intakes and extracts. Alternatively, use a mechanical ventilating system with heat recovery. Avoid excessive air changes, a potential source of heat loss. In considering lighting, optimize daylight by making sure glazing is regularly cleaned and that as many workstations as possible are positioned near windows.

Choose efficient luminaires with low energy or high frequency fluorescent lamps. In large buildings install occupancy sensors to turn off lights when not required. Provide operating and maintenance manuals for occupants to operate all systems as efficiently as intended.

Consider installing monitor systems to maintain and improve efficiency. Planning 61 Water consumption is rising in the UK and global warming appears to be reducing rainfall, so the need to conserve water is imperative. Careful consumption can also reduce operating costs. Devices to conserve water include leak detectors, control devices, flow regulators and the recycling of rainwater and grey water.

Rainwater collection for recycling or garden watering can range from simple butts to underground tanks with filters and submersible pumps supplying water back to points of use. Grey water from baths, showers and washbasins not kitchen wastes, because of grease and food particles can be collected in sealed storage vessels and pumped to header tanks, treated with disinfectant and recycled back to WC and urinal cisterns.

A mains connection to the header tank will still be needed to ensure sufficient water is always available. Appliances should be chosen with minimum water consumption in mind. WC cisterns can be dual-flush or have low volume flushing.

Older cisterns can be filled with volume reducers. Infra-red sensors can be fitted to urinal cisterns. Public washbasins can be fitted with electronic taps, push-top taps or infra-red controlled taps. All taps should have aerating filters. Washing machines and dishwashers should be fitted with flow and pressure limiter restrictors if fed by mains cold water and also to the hot supply if the water is supplied from a combination heating boiler.

Other water saving strategies include installing water meters, replacing washers and seatings on dripping taps, and repairing faulty ball valves to cisterns. Avoid large areas of mown grass, which have low wildlife value and are labour intensive to maintain.

Architect’s Pocket Book

Shelter belts provide windbreaks and lessen noise, although care must be taken not to obscure south-facing glazing and solar collectors. Where possible, use grasscrete and gravel for minor roads to discourage motor traffic. New housing developments need space for allotments, sports fields, playgrounds and landscaped car parks.

The use of water and tree planting can provide buffer zones between housing and industry. New planting should incorporate as many drought-resistant plants as possible. Typical species are: Where watering is necessary, irrigate with trickle hoses monitored by humidity sensors and time clocks. Materials should ideally include those of low embodied energy, which is a term used to describe all the energy used in their production and transportation. Where possible, use local materials to reduce pollution from transport.

Materials should be non-toxic and offer minimum emissions of formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds VOCs and solvent vapours.

Avoid materials that produce static. Pre-treatment of timber as opposed to on-site treat- Planning 63 ment is preferable, as tighter controls are possible under factory conditions. MDF should be low or zero-formaldehyde. PVC is manufactured using toxic chemicals.

Disposing of PVC by fire produces dioxins, some of the most toxic chemicals known. It is used in a vast range of building materials, from window frames to piping. Wherever possible, specify some less hazardous material. FLOORING comes in many renewable forms, which may be preferable to synthetic materials; these include rubber, coir, wool, cork, linoleum hessian and linseed oil and recycled tyres.

Reclaimed timber or FSC-accredited timber make attractive and durable floor finishes. Vinyl papers may contain toxic VOCs and solvent-based inks and preservatives. They include an allowance for clothing and shoes. Minimum clear opening for doorways means clear of door thickness, doorstops and any full length pull handle.

In practice this requires a mm doorset to achieve a minimum clear opening. Part 8: The space may be created by readily removing seats for the occasion.

NOTE No frameless glass doors. No revolving doors unless very large as in airports. Door pulls and lever handles for easy opening. Any door closers to be adjusted to open with minimum force and close slowly. Doorway — clear opening mm Corridor — minimum width mm or wider when approach head-on when approach not head-on when approach not head-on when approach not head-on A WC must be provided in the entrance storey of a dwelling — or the principal storey if there are no habitable rooms at the entrance level.

This WC compartment must be min. This WC may be part of a bathroom. Avoid circulation through the triangle — particularly between sink and cooker which should not be more than 1. Allow a minimum mm between hob and sink and any tall cupboards for elbow room. Cooker should not be positioned near door or in front of window. Keep electric sockets well away from sink area. Provide lighting over worktops. Install extractor fan over hob. Turning circles depend upon the speed the vehicle is travelling, the hand of the driver left hand differs from right , and overhang, particularly at front and back of vehicle.

Allow 1. Generally washbasins should be provided in equal numbers to WCs with one for every five urinals.

In most public buildings, a minimum of two WCs should be provided so that one may act as a reserve if the other is out of order. At least one WC should be designed for disabled people see pages 62 and Offices and shops No. Over Ornamental and very drought and pollution tolerant Ailanthus Altissima tree of heaven 18 21 S Fast growing, imposing, with ash-like leaves. Female trees produce spectacular red fruit.

Tolerant of industrial pollution Almond Prunus dulcis 7 8 S Pink or white flowers early spring, before dark green finely-toothed leaves and velvety green fruit Birch — Himalayan 10 Betula utilis jaquemontii 18 R Vivid white bark, very strong upright stem. Forms a striking avenue. Casts only light shade Catalpa Bignonioides Indian bean 10 12 P Wide, domed crown, heart- shaped leaves, white flowers July, with beans in hot weather.

Especially suitable for streets and avenues Crab apple — Malus floribunda 5 9 S Arching branches with early crimson flowers opening to white. Popular in streets and gardens. Scab and mildew-resistant Crab apple Malus tschonoskii 6 12 S Strong growing conical habit, good for narrow streets. Flowers tinged pink. Excellent autumn colour Hawthorn May Crataegus x lavellei 6 8 S Dense headed, with long glossy dark green leaves until December.

Orange fruit persisting until January Lime — silver Tilia tomentosa 10 18 R Pyramidal dense habit, with large dark green leaves with white felted undersides. Aphid-free, so no drips — good for car-parking areas Maidenhair Ginko biloba 7 30 P Slow growing superb specimen tree, pale green, small, fan-shaped leaves turning yellow in autumn. Good for wide roadsides. Abundant bright orange berries in autumn.

Good for street planting in grass verges Oak — evergreen Quercus ilex Holm oak 7 28 P Slow growing, broad-leaved evergreen specimen tree for parks. Spectacular crimson leaf colour in autumn.

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Requires lime-free soil Plane — London Platanus x hispanica 12 28 S Large, fast growing with boldly lobed leaves and flaking bark. Good street tree, tolerant of atmospheric pollution Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus 12 25 R Fast growing. Wide-headed tree. Good for quick shelter in difficult situations and maritime sites. Tolerant of pollution Tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera 12 30 A Fast growing, three-lobed leaves turning butter yellow.

Good for avenues. Other varieties may be equally suitable, but check that they do not have invasive root runs, surface roots, brittle branches or cannot tolerate pollution. All the trees listed, except the evergreen oak, are deciduous.

Conifers are generally too large for most urban situations, and very few can cope with atmospheric pollution. Good for seaside.

Not for cold areas. When calculating the weight of materials for structures, the kilograms must be multiplied by 9. As a general rule, the following expressions are used: Where access is needed for cleaning and repair, these loads assume spreader boards will be used during work on fragile roofs.

For buildings in areas of high snowfall, snow loading should be taken into consideration. Where alternative values are shown, select that producing the most severe conditions.

Loading Partial safety factor a design and imposed load design dead load design imposed load 0. BS Part 1: This method should not be used for cliff-top buildings.

Find the basic wind speed from the map on p. Find the appropriate maximum wind loading from Table 2. Table 1: Correction factors for ground roughness and height above ground Height above ground Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 3 m or less 5m 10 m 0. All coastal areas.

Open country with scattered wind breaks. Country with many wind breaks, e. Surfaces with large and frequent obstructions, e. Table 2: This may be reduced to 30 minutes providing the means of escape conform to section 2 of requirement B1. Select a strength class of timber to define bending stress f. Choose breadth of beam. Foundations always require site investigation first. Part 2: The table allows for an imposed load of not more than 1. No account has been taken for other loads such as water tanks.

Minimum bearing for ceiling joists should be 35 mm. Effective height of walls When the floor or roof spans at right angles to the wall with sufficient bearing and anchorage: Part 1: For mortar designation, see p. It is often possible to select one grade of concrete for each purpose, i. For the simplest reinforced concrete works, two grades are generally sufficient.

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Grades of concrete Lowest appropriate grade C 7. Very small cross sections may need 10—14 mm maximum aggregate. Mass concrete will normally contain 40 mm or larger aggregate. However, where only a small quantity of mass concrete is required, it may be easier to use a low grade of reinforced concrete, if required elsewhere, thus avoiding additional mixing and testing.

Ready-mixed concrete Over 80 per cent of in situ concrete is now supplied readymixed. Although most convenient, particularly for the smaller site with restricted space for materials and plant, there are pitfalls to be aware of: Exposure conditions of concrete surfaces Mild Protected against weather or aggressive conditions.

Moderate Sheltered from severe rain or freezing while wet; subject to condensation; continuously under water; in contact with non-aggressive soil. Severe Exposed to severe rain; alternate wetting and drying or occasional freezing or severe condensation.

Very severe Exposed to sea water spray, de-icing salts directly or indirectly , corrosive fumes or severe freezing conditions while wet. Extreme Exposed to abrasive action, e.

Paving exposed in situ paving and drives Use ready-mixed if possible 1 cement 1 cement: British Cement Association Reinforced concrete lintels — precast, cast on site or cast in situ Clear span mm up to to to to to to Lintel depth Lintel depth No. Loads printed in bold type may cause overloading of the unstiffened web, the capacity of which should be checked. Loads printed in ordinary type should be checked for deflection. The square and rectangular sections have tight corner radii which have higher geometric properties and therefore a higher load carrying capacity in compression than cold formed sections.

The square and rectangular sections have larger corner radii which give lower geometric properties than hot formed sections of the same size and thickness. Cold formed hollow sections must NOT be substituted in a direct size-for-size basis for hot formed hollow sections without checking the design.

Where structural properties are not critical, CFHS provide a cheaper solution. All figures based on a minimum end bearing of mm. Standard lengths available in mm increments up to mm length and mm increments thereafter. They are made up of three pieces of metal, not all of which are the same gauge. The gauge code letters represent combinations which range from the lightest, E, averaging 1. Heavy duty lintels are also available in thicker gauges.

Lintels are made from galvanised steel with polyester powder corrosion resisting coating. Bases of lintels are slotted for plaster key. Slabs of insulation are fitted inside profiles. Other profiles Open back lintels — useful where the inner skin is fair faced.

Lintels for closed eaves — for windows tight under sloping roofs. Lintels for walls with masonry outer skin and timber frame inside. Lintels for masonry outer skin where inner skin is carried by concrete lintel. Lintels for internal partitions and load bearing walls. Special profiles for various styles of arches and cantilevered masonry corners.

Covers may have single or double seals; plain or recessed tops, and be multiple leaf or continuous for ducting. Alternative features include chambered keyholes, handlift recesses and locking screws.

Most covers are available in the load classes shown below. Caradon Jones Ltd, Glynwed Brickhouse Services Single stack drainage system Soil vent pipe should be terminated with a cage or perforated cover. It should finish at least mm above any opening within 3m of stack. The stack may terminate within a building if fitted with an approved air admittance valve providing the drain is ventilated to outside elsewhere. This is to prevent traps being drawn 20 m 0 in sink 1.

Note that this does not necessarily mean only high rainfall areas such as West Wales and Scotland but, in surprisingly odd pockets like Norfolk and Oxford, heavy downpours can exceed this figure. To calculate the size of rainwater goods it is necessary to determine the effective roof area which, in the case of pitched roofs, is as follows: Gutter will drain more if laid to slight 1: Their aim is to prevent: The regulations should be read in conjunction with the WRAS Guide, which includes detailed information of sizes, flow rates, valves etc.

Application of the regulations The regulations apply only to fittings supplied with water by a WU. They do not apply to water fittings for non-domestic or non-food production purposes providing the water is metered; the supply is for less than 1 month 3 months with written consent and no water can return through a meter to a mains pipe.

They do not apply to fittings installed before 1 July Notification Water undertakers must be notified of the following: Erecting any building, except a pond or swimming pool of less than 10, litres capacity Altering any water system in non-residential premises Changing the use of a property Installing: For items of Notification see above copies of these certificates must be sent to the WU. These categories are used, amongst other things, to define which type of backflow prevention see below is required.

Contamination and corrosion Water for domestic use or food purposes must not be contaminated by materials such as lead and bitumen. Water fittings must not be installed in contaminated environments such as sewers and cesspits. Quality and testing Water fittings should comply with British Standards or European equivalent and must withstand an operating pressure of not less than 1.

All water systems must be tested, flushed and, if necessary, disinfected before use. Location Water fittings must not be installed in cavity walls; embedded in walls or solid floors; or below suspended or solid ground floors unless encased in an accessible duct. External pipes, underground must not be joined by adhesives nor laid less than mm deep or more than mm deep unless written consent is obtained.

Protection against freezing All water fittings outside buildings or located within buildings but outside the thermal envelope should be insulated against freezing. In very cold conditions, in unheated premises, water should be drained down before the onset of freezing or alternative devices installed to activate heating systems. Services Backflow protection Except where expanded water from hot water systems is permitted to flow backwards, water installations must have adequate devices for preventing backflow as follows: Drain taps must be provided to completely drain water from all pipes within a building.

All domestic premises must have at least one tap for drinking water supplied directly from the mains. Cold water cisterns Cold water cisterns for dwellings are no longer mandatory providing there is adequate water flow rate and mains pressure in the street. Check this with the WU before designing new installation. Cisterns must be fitted with float valves and servicing valves.

Where cisterns are joined together, care must be taken to avoid one cistern overflowing into another and that water is fully circulated between cisterns and not short-circuited. Cisterns should be insulated and be fitted with light and insect-proof lids. Expansion valves must be fitted to unvented hot water systems larger than 5 litres. Primary circuit vent pipes should not discharge over domestic cisterns nor to a secondary system.

Secondary circuit vent pipes should not discharge over feed and expansion cisterns connected to a primary circuit. Long lengths of hot water pipes should be insulated to conserve energy. Garden water supplies Double check valves DCVs must be fitted to hose union taps in new houses. Hose union taps in existing houses should be replaced with hose union taps which incorporate DCVs. Watering systems must be fitted with DCVs as well as pipe interrupters with atmosphere vent and moving element at the hose connecting point or a minimum of mm above the highest point of delivering outlet.

Architect's Pocket Book

Pools and fountains filled with water supplied by a WU must have an impervious lining. Manual pressure flushing valves to WC cisterns must receive at least 1. WC cisterns installed before July 99 must be replaced with the same size cistern. Existing single flush cisterns may not be replaced by dual-flush cisterns.

Automatic urinal flushing cisterns should not exceed 10 litres capacity for a single urinal and 7. Urinal pressure valves should deliver no more than 1. In soft water areas, copper cylinders should be specified with an aluminium protector rod which is fixed inside the dome by the manufacturers. This encourages the formation of a protective film on the copper and will lengthen the life of the cylinder which may otherwise be subject to pitting.

Thermal resistivity r-value The reciprocal of thermal conductivity, i. It measures how well a material resists the flow of heat by conduction. Thermal transmittance U-value The reciprocal of thermal resistance, i. This measures the amount of heat transmitted per unit area of the fabric per unit temperature difference between inside and outside environments.

U-value calculation formula: In the case of non residential buildings, provision must be made to limit solar overheating and to provide energy efficient light systems.

To show compliance it is necessary to produce SAP Standard Assessment Procedure energy ratings for buildings which can be done in three ways: The elemental method is suitable for small works and where it is desired to minimise calculations. Note that the elemental method cannot be used for buildings with direct electric heating.

Elemental method of calculation 0. Higher figures for tall, single storey buildings or large areas of glazing, lower figures for well insulated buildings with minimal exposure, e. Recommended indoor temperatures Warehousing; factory — heavy work General stores Factory — light work; circulation space Bedroom; classroom; shop; church Assembly hall; hospital ward Offices; factory — sedentary work Dining room; canteen; museum; art gallery Laboratory; library; law court Living room; bed-sitting room; Sports changing room; operating theatre Bathroom; swimming pool changing room Hotel bedroom Indoor swimming pool Source: Typical footpaths.

Typical footpath edging. Typical fence details. Part 2: Soft Landscape. Definition and specification of tree sizes. Definition and specification of shrub sizes. Native trees in Britain and Ireland. Native shrubs in Britain and Ireland. Plants for encouraging wildlife. Common poisonous plants.

Grass seed mixes. Wild flower mixes. Times of year for planting. Tree planting. Plant protection. Composts, mulches and manufactured topsoil. Soft landscape maintenance. Soft landscape maintenance programme.

Green roofs. Part 3: Planning and Legislation. Planning and development control. Listed and protected areas. Tree Preservation orders. Hedgerow legislation. Notifiable weeds. Environmental impact assessment.These have fixed molecular structures which cannot be reshaped by heat or solvents and are joined by adhesives.

I would suggest there are actually two main uses for this book. It reacts strongly with water to produce hydrated lime. The main mortice lock bolt should be supplemented by a pair of key-operated locking bolts fixed at the top and bottom.

New planting should incorporate as many drought-resistant plants as possible. There are many grades, some unsuitable below ground.

Planning 43 Building a porch 24 With an area measured externally of more than 3 m3. Pull-out trolleys which will fit under worktops cannot only serve as trays, but can act as another work surface or be used for eating.

Subjects Description An indispensable tool for all landscape architects, this time-saving guide answers the most frequently asked questions in one pocket-sized volume. There are no significant differences in the properties, performance or cost between cast and milled lead sheet.

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