THINKING WITH TYPE 2ND REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION PDF
Second, revised and expanded edition. No part of this book may be used or Thinking with type: a critical guide for designers, writers, editors. Thinking with Type, 2nd revised and expanded edition: A Critical Guide for Designers, Writers, Editors, & Students[ebook] by Ellen Lupton (PDF). Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Second, revised and expanded edition 2nd —Kevin C. Lippert, publisher rev. and expanded ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical This new book has more of everything: more fonts. introduction Since the ﬁrst edition of Thinking with Type appeared in a volume.
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Thinking with type: a critical guide for designers, writers, editors, & students / Ellen Lupton. — 2nd rev. and expanded ed. p. cm. Includes. CENTURY EXPANDED. Designed by Morris thinking ap. GE* eges. I berg. 1 type. A CRITICAL GUIDE. FOR DESIGNERS,. WRITERS, EDITORS, ist ed. p. cm. - (Design briefs). Includes bibliographical references. ISBN o ( alk. See the Glog! Thinking with Type, 2nd revised and expanded edition by Ellen Lupton pdf epub txt mobi: text, images, music, video | Glogster EDU - Interactive.
For the full letter. The typefaces cut by the Didot family in France were even more abstract and severe than those of Baskerville. In addition to a roman text face. Printed by John Baskerville.
The typefaces created by Baskerville in the eighteenth century were remarkable—even shocking— in their day for their sharp. Brown and Company. Printed by Firmin Didot. The American Museum. Courtesy of the Boston Public Library. Volume 1 This eighteenth-century essay is an early example of expressive typography. The terms Long Primer. As the two men toss attacks at each other. Great Primer.
Pica Roman. Double Pica. The author. Hopkinson was no stranger to design. These faces advertisements often combined exaggerated the polarization fonts of varying style and of letters into thick and thin proportion on a single page. Introduced in Gothic letters command slab. Although sans-serif slab serif asserts its own weight letters were later associated with and mass. What did this mean?
Who was I? What was I?. Accursed creator! Why did you create a monster so hideous that even you turned away from me in disgust? As an independent attention with their massive architectural component. Nineteenth-century nineteenth century. Type designers created big. For extensive analysis and examples of decorated types. The introduction of the letters in the nineteenth century. Fonts of astonishing height. In search of a beauty both rational and sublime.
Bodoni and Didot had created a monster: See also Ruari McLean. Da Capo Press. Critical Writings on Typography. In contrast. With the rise of industrialization and mass consumption in the nineteenth century came the explosion of advertising.
Meggs New York: Allworth Press. The pantograph is a tracing device that.
The relationships among letters in a typeface became more important than the identity of individual characters. The search for archetypal. Steven Heller and Philip B. American Wood Type: A dozen different fonts are used in this poster for a steamship cruise. The rise of advertising in the nineteenth century stimulated demand for large-scale letters that could command attention in urban space.
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A size and style of typeface has been chosen for each line to maximize the scale of the letters in the space allotted. Although the typefaces are exotic. Locust swarms of print. Applied here to the letterhead of the Union of Revolutionary Socialists. Consisting only of lowercase letters.
Futura is a practical. The De Stijl movement called for the reduction of painting. Although it is strongly geometric. Like the popular printers of the nineteenth century. Edward Johnston revived the search for an essential. Hyphen Press. The modern design reformer was a critic of society. Assembled like machines from modular components. Although reformers like Johnston remained romantically attached to history. While deriding as elements of a universal language of vision.
The avant-garde artists of the early twentieth century rejected historical forms but adopted the model of the critical outsider. Writing in Paul Renner: The Art digitally. Yet most were produced by hand On Futura. These types can be used in light.
The calming. Futura with subtle variations in stroke. Perspectives designed Futura in numerous weights. Members of the De Stijl group in the Netherlands reduced the alphabet to perpendicular elements. On the experimental typeface.
The Look Back continue evolving as a visual ethos in print and digital media. She and her husband. In Zuzana Licko Garamond a in contrast with his own new alphabet.
New Alphabet Amsterdam: Total Design. Gingko Press. Rudy VanderLans. Selections from Emigre Magazine. Living with computers gives funny ideas. In a brochure promoting his new alphabet. Rejecting centuries of typographic convention. Licko embraced Wim Crouwel. By the early s.
Van Nostrand Reinhold. While various signage systems and Graphic Design into the Digital digital output devices still rely on bitmap fonts today. While other digital fonts imposed the coarse grid of screen displays structure of the screen. See and dot-matrix printers onto traditional typographic forms.
Collection of the Cooper- Hewitt. National Design Museum. His posters for the Detroit Focus Gallery feature damaged and defective forms. The only limitations are in our expectations.. After Template Gothic was released commercially by Emigre Fonts.
Dead History: The industrial methods of producing typography meant that all letters had to be identical. He also embraced the burden of history and precedent. By manipulating the vectors of readymade fonts. Template Gothic: Makela adopted the sampling strategy employed in contemporary art and music. The Dutch typographers Erik van Blokland and Just van Rossum have combined the roles of designer and programmer.
Deck designed Template Gothic while he was a student of Ed Fella. The typeface thus refers to a process that is at once mechanical and manual. Mrs Eaves was joined by Mr Eaves. These typefaces look back to sixteenth-century printing from a contemporary point of view. Her typeface Mrs Eaves. Mrs Eaves: In When choosing a typeface. With its distinctive yet utilitarian style. By Fred Smeijers and Rudy Geeraerts.
Shown here is Arnhem. Bruce Mau. In this postindustrial manifesto. Dan Meyers. The x-height usually occupies more than half of the cap height. This is the most stable bottom of letters hang slightly or the height of a lowercase x. Commas excluding its ascenders and is a crucial edge for aligning text and semicolons also cross the descenders.
If a typeface were not positioned this way. The larger the x-height is in relation Hey. Body x-height is the height of the the baseline is where all the overhang The curves at the main body of the lowercase letter letters sit. Without overhang. Although kids learn to write using ruled paper that divides letters exactly in half.
Two blocks of text are often aligned along to the cap height. A typeface is measured from the top of the millimeters. This distorts the line weight of the letters. The set width is the body of the letter plus a sliver of space that protects it The set width is the body of the letter plus the space beside it.
Most software applications capital letter to the let the designer choose a preferred unit of bottom of the lowest measure. Instead of torturing a letterform. The proportions of the letters have been digitally distorted in order to create wider or narrower letters. The width of a letter is intrinsic to the proportions and visual impression of the tight wad typeface. Wide load however. Some typefaces have a narrow set width. The point system is the standard used 6 picas today.
Twelve points equal one pica. The same scaled in a page of printed text. A line of text that legible at small sizes. Helvetica can remain The size of a typeface is a matter of context. Helvetica can look quite elegant. Set in 8 pts for a magazine looks tiny on a television screen may appear appropriately caption. Smaller proportions affect typeface could look bulky and bland. Although this generally creates readable type on screen displays. Mrs Eaves. Differences in x-height.
This typeface. Sizes between 9 and 11 pts are common for printed text. The couple lived together for sixteen years before marrying in His loose letterspacing also within the overall point size. Little pt helvetica pt mrs eaves pt mr eaves The x-height of a typeface affects its Typefaces with small x-heights.
Like those with big lower bodies. This caption is 7. A diminutive x-height is a 12 pts tall on a business card.
Big versus Mrs. When two typefaces are set in the same point size. Margaret Thatcher. Richard Nixon. Grapes of Wrath pt garamond 3 pt itc garamond The lean forms of Garamond 3 appeared during the Great Depression. Van Halen. Osama Bin Laden. The Sopranos. Franklin D. Matthew Barney. Duke pt garamond 3. Claes Oldenburg. A use at 24 pts. When a text-sized letterform is ranging from 6 to 8 pts.
The graphic designer selects a style based on context. They are designed for sizes production. A adobe garamond premiere pro regular This mechanized approach to type sizes Caption styles are built with became the norm for photo and digital type the heaviest stroke weight.
Each size required a unique typeface design. Optical sizes Too Small designed for headlines or display tend to have pt bodoni 8-pt bodoni delicate. Their features are strong economized by simply enlarging or reducing a base and meaty but not too assertive. Display styles are intended for other features. New York City. Scale is relative. People intuitively judge the size of objects in relation to their own bodies and environments.
Scale is and arbitrary. Large-scale text creates impact in this public installation. Changes in scale help create Minimal differences in The strong contrast between type size make this type sizes gives this design visual contrast. Stephen Doyle. Cropping the letters increases their sense of scale. Warren Niedich. The overlapping colors suggest an extreme detail of a printed or photographic process. The designers built simple world maps from country abbreviation codes GBR. HIV incidence.
Gerwin Schmidt. The contrast between the big type and the small pages creates drama and surprise. Its uniform. When the eighteenth and early nineteenth Sabon was designed by typefaces of John Baskerville centuries are radically abstract. Aa Aa Aa futura gill sans helvetica humanist sans serif transitional sans serif geometric sans serif Sans-serif typefaces became Helvetica. Note the thin. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic.
Designers in the nineteenth century for use in advertising. Gill Sans. A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth Aa clarendon century. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Note the small. Jan Tschichold in These of the A and M are sharp and the calligraphic variations fonts are also referred to as triangles.
It is a book about Selecting type with wit and wisdom 14 pt how to use them. Typefaces are essential resources requires knowledge for the graphic designer. Typefaces are essential resources for the wit and wisdom requires knowledge of graphic designer.
It is a book about how Selecting type with wit 14 pt and wisdom requires to use them. Typefaces are essential resources for the knowledge graphic designer. Typefaces are essential resources for the requires knowledge of graphic designer. Typefaces are essential resources wit and wisdom requires knowledge for the graphic designer.
It is a book about Selecting type with 14 pt how to use them. Typefaces are essential resources for the and wisdom requires knowledge of how graphic designer. It is a book about how Selecting type with wit 14 pt to use them.
It is a book about how Selecting type with wit and wisdom 14 pt to use them. It is a book about how Selecting type with 14 pt to use them. It is a book about how Selecting type with 14 pt wit and wisdom to use them. Note the differences between the roman and italic a. Many designers prefer not to use bold and semi-bold versions of traditional typefaces such as Garamond. The concept was formalized in the early twentieth century.
It is typically conceived as the parent of a larger family. Bold and semibold typefaces each need to include an italic version. Italics are not slanted letters. Especially among serif faces. Bold and semibold typefaces are used for emphasis within a hierarchy. Sans-serif families often include a broad range of weights thin. The counters need to stay clear and open at small sizes. In the type family Quadraat. Small capitals are slightly taller than the x-height of lowercase letters.
Although the typeface is classical and conservative. This magazine cover uses the Garamond 3 typeface family in various sizes. Dave Eggers. Whereas some type families grow over time. Sans- serif families often come in many more weights Scala Scala Sans Light and sizes.
Scala Pro OpenType scala jewel diamond format was released in The inclusion of the fat face style. Small capitals and non-lining numerals once found only in serif fonts are included in scala pro.
Univers and fat face. Scala Pro. The serif and sans- SCala jewel crystal serif forms have a common spine. Scala Italic Scala Sans and condensed.
He designed twenty-one versions of Univers. The Serif black roman The Serif medium roman graphic designers will tap the vast Selecting type with wit and wisdom The Serif extra bold roman The Serif semi light store of already existing typefaces. Typefaces The Serif medium roman are essential resources for the graphic designer. These tensions the sans medium italic marked the birth of printed letters five centuries ago. Writing in Germany.
Whereas documents and the sans black roman the sans medium roman in the West was revolutionized early books had previously been written by the sans extra bold roman the sans semi light roman in the Renaissance. But most regard to the audience or situation. Chris Dixon. Rather than Mixing Small Caps with type crime adjusted leading Capitals. These automatically generated characters look puny and starved. This page detail mixes serif types from the Miller family including true Small Caps with the sans- serif family Verlag.
When working with OpenType fonts labeled Pro. Alice Litscher. Running text is set in Glypha. Keita Takahashi fait escale en France. Tom Vac Rouge. Pantone Chair Orange.
Potatohead and Mrs. Give each ingredient a role to play: Yet another weight appears on the bottom line. Pearbutt Too close for comfort These two type styles are too similar to provide a counter- adobe garamond pro bold and adobe jenson pro bold point to each other.
Try mixing big. Strive for contrast rather than harmony. When placing typefaces on separate lines. When mixing typefaces on the same line. Start with a small number of elements representing different colors. Originally commissioned by Abbott Miller for exclusive use by the Guggenheim Museum. This quirky. Verlag has become a widely used general-purpose typeface. These diverse ingredients are mixed here at different scales to create typographic tension and contrast.
This content-intensive page detail mixes four different type families from various points in history. Miller Small Caps. Known typeface from Different math numerals.
Non-lining numerals. Devoting just four hours per day to to the task. If you can read words per minute. The cover price What is the cost of War and Peace? Non-lining numerals returned to turn of the twentieth century to meet the needs of favor in the s. The lining numerals appear styles. Like letterforms. Smaller currency symbols look better with non-lining large.
But what about the human cost in terms of hours squan. Devoting just four hours per day War and Peace. Lining numerals are the same appearance and their traditional typographic height as capital letters. They were introduced around the lowercase letters. The different weights of Retina have matching set widths. The numerals are designed to line up into columns.
You can also use the Optical Margin See appendix for more punctuation blunders.. Know thy keystrokes! Alignment or Indent to Here tools. Pressing the option key. To create hanging punctuation in InDesign. Double and single quotation marks are quotation marks set off dialogue represented with four distinct characters.
There is no excuse for such gross negligence. Millions of dollars a year are spent producing commercial signs that are fraught with typographic misdoings. While some of these signs are cheaply made over-the-counter products. In InDesign or Illustrator. Collection of Jan Tholenaar. Themed collections of icons and illustrations are also available as digital fonts. For centuries.
Reinoud Tholenaar. In the nineteenth century. In the letterpress era. Distributed by T Saskia Ottenhoff-Tholenaar. Marian Bantjes. Decorative rules served to frame and divide content. The designer repeated a single ornament from the font Whirligigs.
Designers create lettering by hand and with software, often combining diverse techniques. Deanne Cheuk, — These magazine headlines combine drawing and painting with digital techniques. Nolen Strals. Hand lettering is a vibrant force in graphic design, as seen in these music posters. Lettering is the basis of many digital typefaces, but nothing is quite as potent as the real thing. Many type designers collaborate with graphic designers to create typefaces that are unique to a given client.
Jochen Stankowski. A complete visual identity can consist of colors. Sometimes a logotype becomes the basis for the design of a complete typeface. Logotypes can be built with existing typefaces or with custom-drawn letterforms.
A logotype is part of an overall visual brand. Whereas some trademarks consist of an abstract symbol or a pictorial icon. The letters in the custom typeface are designed to split apart into elements that can be mirrored. This ambitious visual identity program uses custom letterforms based on the typeface Agenda. Identity design: Joshua Distler. Mike Abbink.
Paul van der Laan. Custom typeface design: This elaborate identity program for a Mexican bank uses a custom typeface whose blocky forms are inspired by Mayan glyphs. Gabor Schreier. These elements work together to express the personality of the brand. In Phenomenology of Perception Merleau-Ponty developed a rich variety of phenomenology emphasizing the role of the body in human experience. Unlike Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre, Merleau-Ponty looked to experimental psychology, analyzing the reported experience of amputees who felt sensations in a phantom limb.
Merleau-Ponty rejected both associationist psychology, focused on correlations between sensation and stimulus, and intellectualist psychology, focused on rational construction of the world in the mind.
Think of the behaviorist and computationalist models of mind in more recent decades of empirical psychology. For the body image is neither in the mental realm nor in the mechanical-physical realm. Rather, my body is, as it were, me in my engaged action with things I perceive including other people.
The scope of Phenomenology of Perception is characteristic of the breadth of classical phenomenology, not least because Merleau-Ponty drew with generosity on Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre while fashioning his own innovative vision of phenomenology.
His phenomenology addressed the role of attention in the phenomenal field, the experience of the body, the spatiality of the body, the motility of the body, the body in sexual being and in speech, other selves, temporality, and the character of freedom so important in French existentialism.
In the years since Husserl, Heidegger, et al.
Interpretation of historical texts by Husserl et al. Since the s, philosophers trained in the methods of analytic philosophy have also dug into the foundations of phenomenology, with an eye to 20th century work in philosophy of logic, language, and mind.
Analytic phenomenology picks up on that connection. For Husserl, similarly, an experience or act of consciousness intends or refers to an object by way of a noema or noematic sense: thus, two experiences may refer to the same object but have different noematic senses involving different ways of presenting the object for example, in seeing the same object from different sides.
Indeed, for Husserl, the theory of intentionality is a generalization of the theory of linguistic reference: as linguistic reference is mediated by sense, so intentional reference is mediated by noematic sense.
More recently, analytic philosophers of mind have rediscovered phenomenological issues of mental representation, intentionality, consciousness, sensory experience, intentional content, and context-of-thought. Some researchers have begun to combine phenomenological issues with issues of neuroscience and behavioral studies and mathematical modeling. Such studies will extend the methods of traditional phenomenology as the Zeitgeist moves on.
We address philosophy of mind below.
Phenomenology and Ontology, Epistemology, Logic, Ethics The discipline of phenomenology forms one basic field in philosophy among others. How is phenomenology distinguished from, and related to, other fields in philosophy?
Traditionally, philosophy includes at least four core fields or disciplines: ontology, epistemology, ethics, logic. Suppose phenomenology joins that list.
Consider then these elementary definitions of field: Ontology is the study of beings or their being—what is. Epistemology is the study of knowledge—how we know. Logic is the study of valid reasoning—how to reason. Ethics is the study of right and wrong—how we should act. Phenomenology is the study of our experience—how we experience. The domains of study in these five fields are clearly different, and they seem to call for different methods of study.
Historically it may be argued , Socrates and Plato put ethics first, then Aristotle put metaphysics or ontology first, then Descartes put epistemology first, then Russell put logic first, and then Husserl in his later transcendental phase put phenomenology first. Consider epistemology. As we saw, phenomenology helps to define the phenomena on which knowledge claims rest, according to modern epistemology. On the other hand, phenomenology itself claims to achieve knowledge about the nature of consciousness, a distinctive kind of first-person knowledge, through a form of intuition.
Consider logic. As we saw, logical theory of meaning led Husserl into the theory of intentionality, the heart of phenomenology. On one account, phenomenology explicates the intentional or semantic force of ideal meanings, and propositional meanings are central to logical theory. But logical structure is expressed in language, either ordinary language or symbolic languages like those of predicate logic or mathematics or computer systems.
It remains an important issue of debate where and whether language shapes specific forms of experience thought, perception, emotion and their content or meaning. So there is an important if disputed relation between phenomenology and logico-linguistic theory, especially philosophical logic and philosophy of language as opposed to mathematical logic per se.
Consider ontology. Phenomenology studies among other things the nature of consciousness, which is a central issue in metaphysics or ontology, and one that leads into the traditional mind-body problem. Husserlian methodology would bracket the question of the existence of the surrounding world, thereby separating phenomenology from the ontology of the world. Now consider ethics. Phenomenology might play a role in ethics by offering analyses of the structure of will, valuing, happiness, and care for others in empathy and sympathy.
Historically, though, ethics has been on the horizon of phenomenology. Husserl largely avoided ethics in his major works, though he featured the role of practical concerns in the structure of the life-world or of Geist spirit, or culture, as in Zeitgeist , and he once delivered a course of lectures giving ethics like logic a basic place in philosophy, indicating the importance of the phenomenology of sympathy in grounding ethics.
Beauvoir sketched an existentialist ethics, and Sartre left unpublished notebooks on ethics. However, an explicitly phenomenological approach to ethics emerged in the works of Emannuel Levinas, a Lithuanian phenomenologist who heard Husserl and Heidegger in Freiburg before moving to Paris.
Allied with ethics are political and social philosophy. Sartre and Merleau-Ponty were politically engaged in s Paris, and their existential philosophies phenomenologically based suggest a political theory based in individual freedom. Sartre later sought an explicit blend of existentialism with Marxism. Still, political theory has remained on the borders of phenomenology. Social theory, however, has been closer to phenomenology as such.
Husserl analyzed the phenomenological structure of the life-world and Geist generally, including our role in social activity. Heidegger stressed social practice, which he found more primordial than individual consciousness. Alfred Schutz developed a phenomenology of the social world. Sartre continued the phenomenological appraisal of the meaning of the other, the fundamental social formation.
Moving outward from phenomenological issues, Michel Foucault studied the genesis and meaning of social institutions, from prisons to insane asylums. Classical phenomenology, then, ties into certain areas of epistemology, logic, and ontology, and leads into parts of ethical, social, and political theory.
Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind It ought to be obvious that phenomenology has a lot to say in the area called philosophy of mind. Yet the traditions of phenomenology and analytic philosophy of mind have not been closely joined, despite overlapping areas of interest. So it is appropriate to close this survey of phenomenology by addressing philosophy of mind, one of the most vigorously debated areas in recent philosophy.
The tradition of analytic philosophy began, early in the 20th century, with analyses of language, notably in the works of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Then in The Concept of Mind Gilbert Ryle developed a series of analyses of language about different mental states, including sensation, belief, and will.
Though Ryle is commonly deemed a philosopher of ordinary language, Ryle himself said The Concept of Mind could be called phenomenology. In effect, Ryle analyzed our phenomenological understanding of mental states as reflected in ordinary language about the mind. Centuries later, phenomenology would find, with Brentano and Husserl, that mental acts are characterized by consciousness and intentionality, while natural science would find that physical systems are characterized by mass and force, ultimately by gravitational, electromagnetic, and quantum fields.
Where do we find consciousness and intentionality in the quantum-electromagnetic-gravitational field that, by hypothesis, orders everything in the natural world in which we humans and our minds exist?
That is the mind-body problem today. In short, phenomenology by any other name lies at the heart of the contemporary mind-body problem. After Ryle, philosophers sought a more explicit and generally naturalistic ontology of mind. In the s materialism was argued anew, urging that mental states are identical with states of the central nervous system. A stronger materialism holds, instead, that each type of mental state is identical with a type of brain state.
But materialism does not fit comfortably with phenomenology. For it is not obvious how conscious mental states as we experience them—sensations, thoughts, emotions—can simply be the complex neural states that somehow subserve or implement them. If mental states and neural states are simply identical, in token or in type, where in our scientific theory of mind does the phenomenology occur—is it not simply replaced by neuroscience? And yet experience is part of what is to be explained by neuroscience.
In the late s and s the computer model of mind set in, and functionalism became the dominant model of mind. On this model, mind is not what the brain consists in electrochemical transactions in neurons in vast complexes. Instead, mind is what brains do: their function of mediating between information coming into the organism and behavior proceeding from the organism. Thus, a mental state is a functional state of the brain or of the human or animal organism.
Since the s the cognitive sciences—from experimental studies of cognition to neuroscience—have tended toward a mix of materialism and functionalism.
Gradually, however, philosophers found that phenomenological aspects of the mind pose problems for the functionalist paradigm too. Many philosophers pressed the case that sensory qualia—what it is like to feel pain, to see red, etc. Consciousness has properties of its own. And yet, we know, it is closely tied to the brain. And, at some level of description, neural activities implement computation. In the s John Searle argued in Intentionality and further in The Rediscovery of the Mind that intentionality and consciousness are essential properties of mental states.
Searle also argued that computers simulate but do not have mental states characterized by intentionality. As Searle argued, a computer system has a syntax processing symbols of certain shapes but has no semantics the symbols lack meaning: we interpret the symbols. However, there is an important difference in background theory. For Searle explicitly assumes the basic worldview of natural science, holding that consciousness is part of nature.
But Husserl explicitly brackets that assumption, and later phenomenologists—including Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty—seem to seek a certain sanctuary for phenomenology beyond the natural sciences. And yet phenomenology itself should be largely neutral about further theories of how experience arises, notably from brain activity. Since the late s, and especially the late s, a variety of writers working in philosophy of mind have focused on the fundamental character of consciousness, ultimately a phenomenological issue.
Does consciousness always and essentially involve self-consciousness, or consciousness-of-consciousness, as Brentano, Husserl, and Sartre held in varying detail?
If so, then every act of consciousness either includes or is adjoined by a consciousness-of-that-consciousness. Does that self-consciousness take the form of an internal self-monitoring?
If so, is that monitoring of a higher order, where each act of consciousness is joined by a further mental act monitoring the base act? Or is such monitoring of the same order as the base act, a proper part of the act without which the act would not be conscious? A variety of models of this self-consciousness have been developed, some explicitly drawing on or adapting views in Brentano, Husserl, and Sartre.
The philosophy of mind may be factored into the following disciplines or ranges of theory relevant to mind: Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced, analyzing the structure—the types, intentional forms and meanings, dynamics, and certain enabling conditions—of perception, thought, imagination, emotion, and volition and action.
Neuroscience studies the neural activities that serve as biological substrate to the various types of mental activity, including conscious experience. Neuroscience will be framed by evolutionary biology explaining how neural phenomena evolved and ultimately by basic physics explaining how biological phenomena are grounded in physical phenomena.
Here lie the intricacies of the natural sciences. Part of what the sciences are accountable for is the structure of experience, analyzed by phenomenology. Cultural analysis studies the social practices that help to shape or serve as cultural substrate of the various types of mental activity, including conscious experience, typically manifest in embodied action.
Here we study the import of language and other social practices, including background attitudes or assumptions, sometimes involving particular political systems. Ontology of mind studies the ontological type of mental activity in general, ranging from perception which involves causal input from environment to experience to volitional action which involves causal output from volition to bodily movement. Phenomenology offers descriptive analyses of mental phenomena, while neuroscience and wider biology and ultimately physics offers models of explanation of what causes or gives rise to mental phenomena.
Cultural theory offers analyses of social activities and their impact on experience, including ways language shapes our thought, emotion, and motivation. And ontology frames all these results within a basic scheme of the structure of the world, including our own minds. The ontological distinction among the form, appearance, and substrate of an activity of consciousness is detailed in D.
Meanwhile, from an epistemological standpoint, all these ranges of theory about mind begin with how we observe and reason about and seek to explain phenomena we encounter in the world.
And that is where phenomenology begins. Moreover, how we understand each piece of theory, including theory about mind, is central to the theory of intentionality, as it were, the semantics of thought and experience in general. And that is the heart of phenomenology. Phenomenology in Contemporary Consciousness Theory Phenomenological issues, by any other name, have played a prominent role in very recent philosophy of mind.
Amplifying the theme of the previous section, we note two such issues: the form of inner awareness that ostensibly makes a mental activity conscious, and the phenomenal character of conscious cognitive mental activity in thought, and perception, and action. This subjective phenomenal character of consciousness is held to be constitutive or definitive of consciousness.
What is the form of that phenomenal character we find in consciousness? A prominent line of analysis holds that the phenomenal character of a mental activity consists in a certain form of awareness of that activity, an awareness that by definition renders it conscious. Since the s a variety of models of that awareness have been developed. As noted above, there are models that define this awareness as a higher-order monitoring, either an inner perception of the activity a form of inner sense per Kant or inner consciousness per Brentano , or an inner thought about the activity.
A further model analyzes such awareness as an integral part of the experience, a form of self-representation within the experience. Again, see Kriegel and Williford eds. A somewhat different model comes arguably closer to the form of self-consciousness sought by Brentano, Husserl, and Sartre. That form of awareness is held to be a constitutive element of the experience that renders it conscious.
This reflexive awareness is not, then, part of a separable higher-order monitoring, but rather built into consciousness per se. On the modal model, this awareness is part of the way the experience unfolds: subjectively, phenomenally, consciously. This model is elaborated in D. Whatever may be the precise form of phenomenal character, we would ask how that character distributes over mental life.
What is phenomenal in different types of mental activity? Here arise issues of cognitive phenomenology. Blue Velvet, shoulder pads, pasta salad, desktop publishing. A type family with optical sizes has different styles for different sizes of output. The graphic designer selects a style based on context. Optical sizes designed for headlines or display tend to have delicate, lyrical forms, while styles created for text and captions are built with heavier strokes.
In the era of metal type, type designers created a different punch for each size of type, adjusting its weight, spacing, and other features. Each size required a unique typeface design. A display or headline style looks spindly and weak when set at small sizes.
Display styles are intended for use at 24 pts. When the type design process became automated in the nineteenth century, many typefounders economized by simply enlarging or reducing a base design to generate different sizes. Basic Text styles are designed for sizes ranging from 9 to 14 pts.
Their features are strong and meaty but not too assertive. This mechanized approach to type sizes became the norm for photo and digital type production. When a text-sized letterform is enlarged to poster-sized proportions, its thin features become too heavy and vice versa. Caption styles are built with the heaviest stroke weight.
They are designed for sizes ranging from 6 to 8 pts. Scale is the size of design elements in comparison to other elements in a layout as well as to the physical context of the work. Scale is relative. Designers create hierarchy and contrast by playing with the scale of letterforms. Changes in scale help create visual contrast, movement, and depth as well as express hierarchies of importance.
Scale is physical. People intuitively judge the size of objects in relation to their own bodies and environments. Stephen Doyle. Large-scale text creates impact in this public installation. Warren Niedich. Cropping the letters increases their sense of scale. The overlapping colors suggest an extreme detail of a printed or photographic process. Gerwin Schmidt. The contrast between the big type and the small pages creates drama and surprise. Sabon was designed by Jan Tschichold in , based on the sixteenth-century typefaces of Claude Garamond.
When the typefaces of John Baskerville were introduced in the mideighteenth century, their sharp forms and high contrast were considered shocking. Egyptian typefaces have heavy, slablike serifs.
Its uniform, upright character makes it similar to transitional serif letters. Gill Sans, designed by Eric Gill in , has humanist characteristics. Note the small, lilting counter in the letter a, and the calligraphic variations in line weight. Note the thin, straight serifs; vertical axis; and sharp contrast from thick to thin strokes. A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history.
Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic.
These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. In Futura, designed by Paul Renner in , the Os are perfect circles, and the peaks of the A and M are sharp triangles.
This is not a book about fonts. It is a book about how to use them. Typefaces are essential resources for the graphic designer, just as glass, stone, steel, and other materials are employed by the architect. In the sixteeenth century, printers began organizing roman and italic typefaces into matched families. The concept was formalized in the early twentieth century. The roman form is the core or spine from which a family of typefaces derives.
The roman form, also called plain or regular, is the standard, upright version of a typeface. It is typically conceived as the parent of a larger family. Italic letters, which are based on cursive writing, have forms distinct from roman.
The italic form is used to create emphasis. Especially among serif faces, it often employs shapes and strokes distinct from its roman counterpart.
Note the differences between the roman and italic a. Small caps capitals are designed to integrate with a line of text, where full-size capitals would stand out awkwardly.
Small capitals are slightly taller than the x-height of lowercase letters. Bold and semibold typefaces are used for emphasis within a hierarchy. Bold versions of traditional text fonts were added in the twentieth century to meet the need for emphatic forms.
Sans-serif families often include a broad range of weights thin, bold, black, etc. Bold and semibold typefaces each need to include an italic version, too. The typeface designer tries to make the two bold versions feel similar in comparison to the roman, without making the overall form too heavy. The counters need to stay clear and open at small sizes. Many designers prefer not to use bold and semi-bold versions of traditional typefaces such as Garamond, because these weights are alien to the historic families.
Dave Eggers. This magazine cover uses the Garamond 3 typeface family in various sizes. Although the typeface is classical and conservative, the obsessive, slightly deranged layout is distinctly contemporary. A traditional roman book face typically has a small family—an intimate group consisting of roman, italic, small caps, and possibly bold and semibold each with an italic variant styles.
Sansserif families often come in many more weights and sizes, such as thin, light, black, compressed, and condensed. Small capitals and non-lining numerals once found only in serif fonts are included in the sans-serif versions of Thesis, Scala Pro, and many other contemporary superfamilies.
The serif and sansserif forms have a common spine. Scala Pro OpenType format was released in Pratt, Printer, Stokesley. Whereas some type families grow over time, Univers was conceived as a total system from its inception. The inclusion of the fat face style, with its wafer-thin serifs and ultrawide verticals, gives this family an unusual twist.
Small capitals are designed to match the x-height of lowercase letters. Designers, enamored with the squarish proportions of true small caps, employ them not only within bodies of text but for subheads, bylines, invitations, and more.Accordingly, the perspective on phenomenology drawn in this article will accommodate both traditions.
Great Primer. You can also use the Optical Margin See appendix for more punctuation blunders.. Lo-Res Narrow consists of a series of different sizes. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers,