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CISCO NETWORKING ESSENTIALS PDF

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FOR DETAiLS ON CiSCO SOLUTiONS FOR yOUR NETWORkS OR EDUCATiON iNiTiATivES, Throughout “Cisco Networking Essentials for Educational. Microsoft Windows Networking Essentials Cisco Networking Simplified (2nd Edition) Troubleshooting Cisco IP Telephony (Networking Technology). Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SMBUF SMB University: Selling Cisco SMB Foundation Solutions. Networking Fundamentals.


Cisco Networking Essentials Pdf

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Networking pixia-club.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Two types of networks. ▫ Peer – to – peer: Allow any entity to both request and provide network services. ▫ Server – centric: Places restrictions upon which. Thank you for choosing Cisco Networking Essentials. This book is part of a family of premium-quality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding.

Unshielded twisted pair UTP is the most popular and is generally the best option for networks. Each pair of wires is individually shielded with foil. There is a foil or braid shield inside the jacket covering all wires as a group. There is a shield around each individual pair, as well as around the entire group of wires referred to as double shield twisted pair. Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center.

A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield. The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers. Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. There are two common types of fiber cables -- single mode and multimode.

Multimode cable has a larger diameter; however, both cables provide high bandwidth at high speeds. Single mode can provide more distance, but it is more expensive. Difficult to work with; can cover only a limited distance.

Difficult to work with Thicknet ; limited bandwidth; limited application Thinnet ; damage to cable can bring down entire network. Cannot be tapped, so security is better; can be used over great distances; is not susceptible to EMI; has a higher data rate than coaxial and twisted-pair cable.

Networking Devices: Modem The word "modem" is a contraction of the words modulator-demodulator. A modem is typically used to send digital data over a phone line The sending modem modulates the data into a signal that is compatible with the phone line, and the receiving modem demodulates the signal back into digital data.

Wireless modems convert digital data into radio signals and back. Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. A hub contains multiple ports Hub broadcasts the packets to all the ports including the incoming port. Network repeaters regenerate incoming electrical, wireless, or optical signals.

With physical media like Ethernet or Wi-Fi, data transmissions can only span a limited distance before the quality of the signal degrades.

Repeaters attempt to preserve signal integrity and extend the distance over which data can safely travel.

Bridges Bridge is a device which connects two segments of a network. Bridges inspect incoming traffic and decide whether to forward or discard it. An Ethernet bridge, for example, inspects each incoming Ethernet frame - including the source and destination MAC addresses, and sometimes the frame size.

If the destination address is not on the other side of the bridge it will not transmit the data. Packet forwarding is performed using software. Usually Bridges have 2 ports can go up to a max of 16 ports. Such a device is required for both ends of a T-1 or T-3 connection; the units at both ends must be from the same manufacturer. Short for Network Interface Card, a NIC is also commonly referred to as an Ethernet card and network adapter and is an expansion card that enables a computer to connect to a network such as a home network or the Internet using an Ethernet cable with a RJ connector.

CHEAT SHEET

Some NIC cards work with. A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network LAN. Network switches appear nearly identical to network hubs, but a switch generally contains more intelligence and a slightly higher price tag than a hub. Unlike hubs, network switches are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and forwarding them appropriately.

By delivering messages only to the connected device intended, a network switch conserves network bandwidth and offers generally better performance than a hub. As with hubs, Ethernet implementations of network switches are the most common. Different models of network switches support differing numbers of connected devices. Most consumergrade network switches provide either four or eight connections for Ethernet devices.

Switches can be connected to each other, a so-called daisy chaining method to add progressively larger number of devices to a LAN. Types of Network Switches Unmanaged Network Switches Unmanaged network switches are commonly used in home networks and small businesses.

It allows devices on the network to communicate with each other, such as computer to computer or printer to computer. An unmanaged switch does not need to be monitored or configured using external software applications. They are easy to set up and require only cable connections. Unmanaged network switches are ideal for small and medium networks.

Managed Switches. They are managed by an embedded simple network management protocol SNMP , secure shell or via a serial console. There are two types of managed switches: Smart switches fall between unmanaged and managed switches.

They offer most of the features of managed switches without their cost or complexity. A smart switch is able to configure virtual LANs, ports and set up trucking. Smart switches are ideally used in fast LANs, which are those that support gigabit data transfer.

Enterprise managed switches are also called fully managed switches. They have a wide range of management features, including a web interface, SNMP agent and command-line interface. Additional features include the ability to restore, backup, modify and display configurations.

They have more features than traditional managed and unmanaged switches and are generally more expensive. They are found in large enterprises, which are comprised of a large number of connections and nodes. Router Routers connect networks. A router links computers to the Internet, so users can share the connection NAT.

A router acts as a dispatcher, choosing the best path for information to travel so it's received quickly. The router is the only device that sees every message sent by any computer on either of the company's networks. The Router looks at the IP Address to route the packets.

All but the most basic of networks require devices to provide connectivity and functionality. Understanding how these networking devices operate and identifying the functions they perform are essential skills for any network administrator.

In computer networking, the Address Resolution Protocol ARP is the method for finding a host's hardware address when only its network layer address is known. ARP is used in four cases of two hosts communicating: When a router needs to forward a packet for one host through another router. When a router needs to forward a packet from one host to the destination host on the same network Reverse Address Resolution Protocol RARP is a network layer protocol used to resolve an IP address from a given hardware address such as an Ethernet address.

IP Addressing and sub netting: Any given host or interface on a network has a logical Unique ID called as IP Internet Protocol Address, IPV4 address is a 32 bit binary number usually represented as 4 decimal values, each representing 8 bits, in the range 0 to known as octets separated by decimal points.

This is known as "dotted decimal" notation. Subnet A portion of a network sharing a particular subnet addresses. Subnet maskA bit combination used to describe which portion of an address refers to the subnet and which part refers to the host.

Every IP address consists of two parts, one identifying the network and one identifying the node. The Class of the address and the subnet mask determine which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node address.

Subnet mask is used in conjunction with the ANDING process to know whether the source computer needs to send the packet within the network or to the default gateway. Class A addresses A network mask helps you know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion of the address identifies the node. Class A, B, and C networks have default masks, also known as natural masks, as shown here: Default subnet masks: Class A - Subnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A, B, or C network.

If you do not subnet, you are only able to use one network from your Class A, B, or C network, which is unrealistic. Each data link on a network must have a unique network ID, with every node on that link being a member of the same network. If you break a major network Class A, B, or C into smaller subnetworks, it allows you to create a network of interconnecting subnetworks.

In order to subnet a network, extend the natural mask using some of the bits from the host ID portion of the address to create a subnetwork ID. For example, given a Class C network of With these three bits, it is possible to create eight subnets. With the remaining five host ID bits, each subnet can have up to 32 host addresses, 30 of which can actually be assigned to a device since host ids of all zeros or all ones are not allowed it is very important to remember this.

So, with this in mind, these subnets have been created. Routing is the process of moving packets through an internetwork, such as the Internet. Routing actually consists of two separate, but related, tasks: Define paths for the transmission of packets through an internetwork. Forwarding packets based upon the defined paths Static vs. Dynamic Routing Routing can be accomplished by manually entering the information necessary for packets to reach any part of the internetwork into each router.

Static routing works reasonably well for very small networks, but does not scale well.

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When using static routing, the routing tables on each router must be updated each time the network topology changes such as when a network link fails. In most networks, routing is managed automatically by dynamic routing. In dynamic routing, routing protocols create and maintain the routing tables automatically.

Dynamic routing responds much more quickly to network changes and network failures than static routing. A network cabling that connects a computer to a network device.

For example, straight through cables are cables that connect a computer to a network hub, network switch, and network routers. These are the standard network cables you would find at the store, unless labeled as a cross-over cable. To create your own network cables you will first need the equipment we have listed below. Cat5 cabling is the most commonly used cable used today for networks 2 RJ connectors - These connectors can be purchased at most electronic stores and computer stores and usually come in bulk packages.

It's always a good idea to get more than you expect you will need. To create a network cable you will need a crimper that is capable of crimping a RJ cable not just a RJ cable, which looks similar to a RJ If you do not plan on creating many network cables a knife will suffice. For simplicity and to prevent potential issues we recommend a wire stripper. Once you have the necessary equipment needed to create your own network cables you need to determine the network cable you wish to create.

There are two major network cables: Below are some examples of what cable is used for each of the examples. Straight Through Wired Cables: Straight Through refers to cables that have the pin assignments on each end of the cable. Straight-Through wired cables are most commonly used to connect a host to client. When we talk about cat5e patch cables, the. Crossover Wired Cables: Crossover wired cables commonly called crossover cables are very much like Straight-Through cables with the exception that TX and RX lines are crossed they are at opposite positions on either end of the cable.

Using the B standard as an example below you will see that Pin 1 on connector A goes to Pin 3 on connector B. Pin 2 on connector A goes to Pin 6 on connector B etc. Crossover cables are most commonly used to connect two hosts directly.

Examples would be connecting a computer directly to another computer, connecting a switch directly to another switch, or connecting a router to a router.

While in the past when connecting two host devices directly a crossover cable was required. Now days most devices have auto sensing technology that detects the cable and device and crosses pairs when needed.

Networking Essentials.pdf

Rollover Wired Cables: Rollover wired cables most commonly called rollover cables, have opposite Pin assignments on each end of the cable or in other words it is "rolled over". Pin 1 of connector A would be connected to Pin 8 of connector B. Pin 2 of connector A would be connected to Pin 7 of connector B and so on.

Rollover cables, sometimes referred to as Yost cables are most commonly used to connect to a devices console port to make programming changes to the device. Unlike crossover and straight-wired cables, rollover cables are not intended to carry data but instead create an interface with the device.

Network Troubleshooting: Any troubleshooting task is basically a series of steps. The actual steps you take will vary from problem to problem. Later steps in the process may depend on the results from earlier steps. Still, it is worth thinking about and mapping out the steps since doing this will help you remain focused and avoid needless steps. There are 7 steps for Network Troubleshooting, and they are Identify the problem Establish a theory Test the theory Establish a plan of action Implement the solution or escalate Verify full system functionality Document finding, actions and outcomes Ping: So, ping is basically a command that allows you to check whether the host is alive or not.

To ping a particular host the syntax is at command prompt..

More Expensive than UTP

Traceroute is a command, which can show you the path a packet of information takes from your computer to one you specify. It will list all the routers it passes through until it reaches its destination, or fails to and is discarded. In addition to this, it will tell you how long each 'hop' from router to router takes.

The syntax is at command prompt.. Ethereal is a freeware sniffing tool that can be used to view packets on the network. This tool is especially useful to detect any intrusion attempts. Shows the packets that have been captured during the time. Shows the select packet in 1 in more details. If expanded more details of the packet can be observed. Shows the actual packet captured. Networking Essentials.

Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Unmanaged network switches are ideal for small and medium networks. They are managed by an embedded simple network management protocol SNMP , secure shell or via a serial console. There are two types of managed switches: smart switches and enterprise managed switches. Smart switches fall between unmanaged and managed switches.

They offer most of the features of managed switches without their cost or complexity. A smart switch is able to configure virtual LANs, ports and set up trucking. Smart switches are ideally used in fast LANs, which are those that support gigabit data transfer. Enterprise managed switches are also called fully managed switches. They have a wide range of management features, including a web interface, SNMP agent and command-line interface. Additional features include the ability to restore, backup, modify and display configurations.

They have more features than traditional managed and unmanaged switches and are generally more expensive. They are found in large enterprises, which are comprised of a large number of connections and nodes. Router Routers connect networks. A router links computers to the Internet, so users can share the connection NAT.

A router acts as a dispatcher, choosing the best path for information to travel so it's received quickly. The router is the only device that sees every message sent by any computer on either of the company's networks. The Router looks at the IP Address to route the packets.

All but the most basic of networks require devices to provide connectivity and functionality. Understanding how these networking devices operate and identifying the functions they perform are essential skills for any network administrator.

When a router needs to forward a packet for one host through another router. When a router needs to forward a packet from one host to the destination host on the same network Reverse Address Resolution Protocol RARP is a network layer protocol used to resolve an IP address from a given hardware address such as an Ethernet address. This is known as "dotted decimal" notation. Example: Subnet A portion of a network sharing a particular subnet addresses. Subnet maskA bit combination used to describe which portion of an address refers to the subnet and which part refers to the host.

Every IP address consists of two parts, one identifying the network and one identifying the node. The Class of the address and the subnet mask determine which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node address. Subnet mask is used in conjunction with the ANDING process to know whether the source computer needs to send the packet within the network or to the default gateway.

Class A, B, and C networks have default masks, also known as natural masks, as shown here: Default subnet masks: Class A - If you do not subnet, you are only able to use one network from your Class A, B, or C network, which is unrealistic. Each data link on a network must have a unique network ID, with every node on that link being a member of the same network. If you break a major network Class A, B, or C into smaller subnetworks, it allows you to create a network of interconnecting subnetworks.

In order to subnet a network, extend the natural mask using some of the bits from the host ID portion of the address to create a subnetwork ID. For example, given a Class C network of With these three bits, it is possible to create eight subnets. With the remaining five host ID bits, each subnet can have up to 32 host addresses, 30 of which can actually be assigned to a device since host ids of all zeros or all ones are not allowed it is very important to remember this.

So, with this in mind, these subnets have been created. Routing actually consists of two separate, but related, tasks: 1. Define paths for the transmission of packets through an internetwork. Forwarding packets based upon the defined paths Static vs. Dynamic Routing Routing can be accomplished by manually entering the information necessary for packets to reach any part of the internetwork into each router.

Static routing works reasonably well for very small networks, but does not scale well. When using static routing, the routing tables on each router must be updated each time the network topology changes such as when a network link fails. In most networks, routing is managed automatically by dynamic routing. In dynamic routing, routing protocols create and maintain the routing tables automatically. Dynamic routing responds much more quickly to network changes and network failures than static routing.

Cabling: A network cabling that connects a computer to a network device. For example, straight through cables are cables that connect a computer to a network hub, network switch, and network routers. These are the standard network cables you would find at the store, unless labeled as a cross-over cable.

To create your own network cables you will first need the equipment we have listed below. Cat5 cabling is the most commonly used cable used today for networks 2 RJ connectors - These connectors can be purchased at most electronic stores and computer stores and usually come in bulk packages. It's always a good idea to get more than you expect you will need. To create a network cable you will need a crimper that is capable of crimping a RJ cable not just a RJ cable, which looks similar to a RJ If you do not plan on creating many network cables a knife will suffice.

For simplicity and to prevent potential issues we recommend a wire stripper.The syntax is at command prompt.. Public 30 28 Why Technology? Students learn how to configure and troubleshoot routing and switching technologies and protocols.

Later steps in the process may depend on the results from earlier steps.

These applications are designed to request and receive data over the span of the network. Students learn how to configure and troubleshoot network devices and implement virtual private networks. A cable's total bandwidth is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that are carried over that cable. Routing actually consists of two separate, but related, tasks: 1.

They are easy to set up and require only cable connections.

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