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United Nations Environment Programme,. Dr. Mostafa Tolba, for his valuable, continuous support and interest. Gro Harlem Brundtland. Oslo, 20 March Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future - A/42/ Annex - an element of the body of UN Documents for earth. nal fue la publicación, en , del ya citado Informe Brundtland de la Comi- Los requerimientos que propone el Informe Brundtland para un desarrollo.

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Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report in recognition of former Norwegian An Examination of the Development Path Taken by Small Island Developing States (PDF). (pp. 17–26); Iris Borowy, Defining Sustainable. To view the report in full, click here. Following the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland. Sep 8, Our Common Future / Brundtland Report () Or download a Bookmarked pdf copy of the report from Wikisource. Our Common.

Many governments have cut back efforts to protect the environment and to bring ecological considerations into development planning. Some 5. This approach to the debt problem is short-sighted from several standpoints: The deepening and widening environmental crisis presents a threat to national security.

Some Numbers of victims of cyclones and earthquakes also shot up as growing numbers of poor people built unsafe houses on dangerous ground.

Rising poverty and unemployment have increased pressure on environmental resources as more people have been forced to rely more directly upon them. Already in parts of Latin America. The production base of other developing world areas suffers similarly from both local failures and from the workings of international economic systems. As a consequence of the 'debt crisis' of Latin America..

Floods have poured off the deforested Andes and Himalayas with increasing force. The recent destruction of much of Africa'S dryland agricultural production was more severe than if an invading army had pursued a scorched-earth policy. Studies suggest that the cold and dark nuclear winter followinq even a limited nuclear war could destroy plant and animal ecosystems and leave any human survivors occupying a devastated planet very different from the one they inherited.

Sustainable Development In the Commission's hearings it was the young. They draw too heavily. But the results of the present profligacy are rapidly closing the options for future generations. Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

We act as we do because we -can get away with it: Poverty is not only an evil in itself. But technology and social organization can be both managed and improved to make way for a new era of economic growth.

The armS race. The Commission believes that widespread poverty is no longer inevitable.. Governments tend to base their approaches to 'security' on traditional definitions. Most of today's decision makers will be dead before the planet feels the heavier effects of acid precipitation. They may show profits on the balance sheets of our qeneration.

Most of the younq voters of today will still be alive.. In many countries. They may damn us for our spendthrift ways. Many present efforts to quard and maintain human progress. We borrow environmental capital from future generations with no intention or prospect of repaying. The concept of sustainable development does imply limits. This is most obvious in the attempts to achieve security through the development of potentially planet-destroying nuclear weapons systems.

Governments' general response to the speed and scale of global changes has been a reluctance to recognize sufficiently the need to change themselves. Such equity would be aided by political systems that secure effective citizen participation in decision making and by greater democracy in international decision making.. The Institutional Gaps Painful choices have to be made. The challenges are both interdependent and integrated. Yet at the same time. Sustainable global development requires that those who are more affluent adopt life-styles within the planet's ecological means.

Those responsible for managing natural resources and protecting the environment are institutionally separated from those responsible for managing the economy.

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We do not pretend that the process is easy or straightforward. Meeting essential needs requires not only a new era of economic growth for nations in which the majority are poor. The real world of interlocked economic and ecological systems will not change: Yet in the end. A world in which poverty is endemic will always be prone to ecological and other catastrophes.

There is a growing need for effective international cooperation to manage ecological and economic interdependence. Yet most of the institutions facing those challenges tend to be independent. The present challenge is to give the central economic and sectoral ministries the responsibility for the quality of those parts of the human environment affected by their decisions. Electricity boards produce power. They should be considered on the same agendas and in the same national and international institutions.

But much of their work has of necessity been after-the-fact repair of damage: The same need for change holds for international agencies concerned with development lending. The ability to anticipate and prevent environmental damage requires that the ecological dimensions of policy be considered at the same time as the economic.

Yet many industrialized and most developing countries carry huge economic burdens from inherited problems such as air and water pollution. These have been slow to take the environmental effects of their work into account. Many had great success. This reorientation is one of the chief institutional challenges of the s and beyond.

The mandates of the central economic and sectoral ministries are also often too narrow. Many countries that are too poor or small or that have limited managerial capacity will find it difficult to do this unaided.

Meeting it will require major institutional development and reform. The mandates of ministries of industry include production targets. Environmental concern arose from damage caused by the rapid economic growth following the Second World War. The existence of such agencies gave many governments and their citizens the false impression that these bodies were by themselves able to protect and enhance the environmental resource base. But the changes required involve all countries..

Some are threatened with virtual extinction by insensitive development over which they I. Tribal and indigenous peoples will need special attention as the forces of economic development disrupt their traditional life-styles. In many parts of the world. Choices made now will influence the level at which the population stabilizes next century within a range of 6 billion people. Governments that need to do so should develop long-term.

Human resource development is a crucial requirement not only to build up technical knowledge and capabilities. The issue is not just numbers relate to available problem' must be dealt with poverty. This section contains only a few of the Commission's many recommendations. Urgent steps are needed to limit extreme rates of population growth. Knowledge shared globally would assure greater mutual understanding and create greater willingness to share global resources equitably.

But this is not just a demographic issue: The Commission has focused its attention in the areas of population. Population and Human Resources Thus the 'population in part by efforts to eliminate mass more equitable access to resources.

Most industrialized nations. Their traditional rights should be recognized and they should be given a decisive voice in formulating policies about resource development in their areas. Most developing nations need more effective incentive systems to encourage production.

Their greater prosperity will depend on integrated rural development that increases work opportunities both inside and outside agricUlture. Production in industrialized countries has usually been highly subsidized and protected from international competition. Global agriculture has the potential to grow enough food for all.. See Chapter 5 for a wider discussion of these issues and recommendations.

In some. Yet each year there are more people in the world who do not get enough food. And some of this surplus has been sent at concessional rates to the developing world.

Food Security: Sustaining the Potential In short. These subsidies have encouraged the overuse of soil and chemicals. Coping with often inadequate technology and few economic incentives.

Sustainability and Performance in Agribusinesses: The Case of Vegetable Export Businesses in Mexico

Growth in world cereal production has steadily outstripped world population growth. Much of this effort has produced surpluses and their associated financial burdens. Food security requires attention to questions of distribution. There is. See Chapter 4 for a wider discussion of these issues and recommendations.

But elsewhere. Forests are cleared and productive drylands rendered barren. Many developing countries. It can be furthered by land reforms. Rates of increase in energy use have been declining. Species and Ecosystems: Governments can stem the destruction of tropical forests and other reservoirs of biological diversity while developing them economically.

They should also consider international financial arrangements to support the implementation of such a convention. Yet there is still time to halt this process. A first priority is to establish the problem of disappearing species and threatened ecosystems on political agendas as a major economic and resource issue.

Choices for Environment and Development The diversity of species is necessary for the normal functioning of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. Thus any realistic global energy scenario must provide for substantially increased primary energy use by developing countries. A safe and sustainable energy pathway is crucial to sustainable development.. Reforming forest revenue systems and concession terms could raise billions of dollars of additional revenues.

See Chapter 6 for a wider discussion of these issues and recommendations. But over the long term the opportunities for development will be enhanced. But utility aside.

The planet's species are under stress. The genetic material in wild species contributes billions of dollars yearly to the world economy in the form of improved crop species. Governments should investigate the prospect of agreeing to a 'Species Convention'. International development agencies should therefore give comprehensive and systematic attention to the problems and opportunities of species conservation. There is a growing scientific consensus that species are disappearing at rates never before witnessed on the planet.

Developing countries will require assistance to change their energy use patterns in this direction. The SUbstantial changes required in the present global energy mix will not be aChieved by market pressures alone. Prices needed to encourage the adoption of energy-saving measures may be achieved through several means. If the recent momentum behind annual gains in energy efficiency is to be maintained and extended. The discussion in the Commission also reflected these different views and positions.

Any new era of economic growth must therefore be less energy-intensive than growth in the past. Yet all agreed that the generation of nuclear power is only justifiable if there are solid solutions to the unsolved problems to Which it gives rise.

After almost four decades of immense technological effort. To bring developing countries' energy use up to industrialized country levels by the year would require increasing present global energy use by a factor of five. The highest priority should be accorded to research and development on environmentally sound and ecologically viable alternatives. Threats of global warming and acidification of the environment most probably rUle out even a doubling of energy use based on present mixes of primary sources.

Millions of people in the developing world are short of fuelwood. Which should form the foundation of the global energy structure during the 21st Century. Energy efficiency policies must be the cutting edge of national energy strategies for sustainable development.

Different countries world-wide take up different positions on the use of nuclear energy.. The wood-poor nations must organize their agricultural sectors to produce large amounts of wood and other plant fuels. Although the Commission expresses no preference. Modern appliances can be redesigned to deliver the same amounts of energy-services with only two-thirds or even one-half of the primary energy inputs needed to run traditional equipment.

And energy efficiency solutions are often cost-effective. The planetary ecosystem could not stand this. Energy efficiency can only buy time for the world to develop 'low-energy paths' based on renewable sources. During this period. Most of these sources are currently problematic. Given population growth rates. Producing More with Less But they also need assistance and information from industrialized nations to make the best use of technology.

Experience in the industrialized nations has proved that anti-pollution technology has been cost-effective in terms of health. Emerging technologies offer the promise of higher productivity. Many essential human needs can be met only through goods and services provided by industry. Given the importance of oil prices on international energy policy. The world manufactures seven times more goods today than it did as recently as It is also possible. But it will require new dimensions of political will and institutional cooperation to achieve it.

The Urban Challenge Nations have to bear the costs of any inappropriate industrialization. Present controls over the dumping of hazardous wastes should be tightened. Transnational corporations have a special responsibility to smooth the path of industrialization in the nations in which they operate. While economic growth has continued. By the turn of the century. See Chapter 8 for a wider discussion of these issues and recommendations. See Chapter 7 for a wider discussion of these issues and recommendations.

There is an urgent need for tighter controls over the export of hazardous industrial and agricultural chemicals. A safe. Between and the year The Role of the International Economy They have a major urban crisis on their hands.

But with the means and resources to tackle this decline. Good city management requires decentralization. Much can be achieved by 'site and service' schemes that provide households with basic services and help them to get on with building sounder houses around these. See Chapter 9 for a wider discussion of these issues and recommendations.

The result is mushrooming illegal settlements with primitive facilities. The sustainability of ecosystems on which the global economy depends must be guaranteed. Two conditions must be satisfied before international economic exchanges can become beneficial for all involved. Developing countries are not in the same situation. OVer only 65 years. Governments will need to develop explicit settlements strategies to guide the process of urbanization..

This will mean examining and changing other policies. Few city governments in the developing world have the power. This suggests that the developing world must. In Which are best placed to appreciate and manage local needs.

But the sustainable development of cities will depend on closer work with the majorities of urban poor who are the true city builders. Many cities in industrial countries also face problems. Third World cities could grow by another three-quarters of a billion people. Multinational companies can play an important role in sustainable development. Growth in many developinq countries is being stifled by depressed coamodity prices.

But if these companies are to have a positive influence on development. Some progress has been made in all three areas. Current arrangements for commOdities could be significantly improved: Debtors are being required to use trade surpluses to service debts. A particular responsibility falls to the World Bank and the International Development Association as the main conduit for mUltilateral finance to developinq countries. The present level of debt service of many countries.

For many developinq In financinq structural adjustment. Managing the Commons In the context of consistently increased financial flows. Coamodity-specific arranqements can build on the model of the International Tropical Timber Agreement.

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Traditional forms of national sovereiqnty raise particular problems in manaqing the 'qlobal commons' and their shared ecosystems. If livinq standards are to grow so as to alleviate poverty. Urqent action is necessary to alleviate debt burdens in ways that represent a fairer sharinq between both debtors and lenders of the responsibilities and burdens.

See Chapter 3 for a more detailed discussion of issues and recommendations on the international economy. The whole notion of security as traditionally understood. FiSheries agreements should be strengthened to prevent current overexploitation.

The orbiting and testing of weapons in space would greatly increase this debris. There are no military solutions to 'environmental insecurity'. Certain aspects of the issues of peace and security bear directly upon the concept of sustainable development. The UN Conference on the Law of the Sea was the most ambitious attempt ever to provide an internationally agreed regime for the management of the oceans.

Institutional and Legal Change The Report that follows contains throughout and especially in Chapter Antarctica is managed under the Antarctica Treaty. There are growing concerns about the management of orbital space. See Chapter 11 for more discussion of issues and recommendations on the links between peace.

This is needed to achieve agreement on tighter control over the proliferation and testing of various types of weapons of mass destruction. But the greatest need is to achieve improved relations among those major powers capable of deploying weapons of mass destruction.

Among the dangers facing the environment. The international community should seek to design and implement a space regime to ensure that space remains a peaceful environment for the benefit of all. See Chapter 10 for more discussion on issues and recommendations on the management of the commons. All nations should ratify the Law of the Sea Treaty as soon as possible.

The Commission's recommendations deal with the safeguarding of present achievements. Governments and international agencies should assess the cost effectiveness. This is needed in many industrialized countries. Governments should also reinforce the roles and capacities of environmental protection and resource management agencies.

All major international bodies and agencies should ensure that their programmes encourage and support sustainable development. By the same token. New regional arrangements will especially be needed among developing countries to deal with transboundary environmental issues.

Governments must begin now to make the key national. A new international programme for cooperation among largely non-governmental organizations. The capacity to identify. These cannot be adequately summarized here. Multilateral financial institutions have a crucial role to play. But there are large financial implications: OVer the past decade. The World Bank is presently reorienting its programmes towards greater environmental concerns.

A new priority and focus is also needed in bilateral aid agencies. Given the limitations on increasing present flows of international aid. National and international law is being rapidly outdistanced by the accelerating pace and expanding scale of impacts on the ecological basis of development. Over the course of this century. It is also essential that the Regional Development Banks and the International Monetary Fund incorporate similar objectives in their policies and programmes.

The escalating economic and ecological damage costs of not investing in environmental protection and improvement have also been repeatedly demonstrated. Their rights. Governments now need to fill major gaps in existing national and international law related to the environment. Making the difficult choices involved in achieving sustainable development will depend on the widespread support and involvement of an informed pUblic and of NGOs.

This should be accompanied by a fundamental commitment to sustainable development by the Bank. Special follow-up conferences could be initiated at the regional level.

Yet we are aware that such a reorientation on a continuing basis is simply beyond the reach of present decision-making structures and institutional arrangements. Security must be sought through change. The rate of change is outstripping the ability of scientific disciplines and our current capabilities to assess and advise. But to keep options open for future generations. The Commission has noted a number of actions that must be taken to reduce risks to survival and to put future development on paths that are sustainable.

It is with this in mind that we call for the UN General Assembly. The entire human family of nations would suffer from the disappearance of rain forests in the tropics. This Commission has been careful to base our recommendations on the realities of present institutions.

All nations may suffer from the releases by industrialized countries of carbon dioxide and of gases that react with the ozone layer. When the century began. Within an appropriate period after the presentation of this report to the General Assembly. All nations will have a role to play in changing trends. Industrial nations face the life-threatening challenges of toxic chemicals.

Attempts to maintain social and ecological stability through old approaches to development and environmental protection will increase instability..

As the century closes. Developing countries face the obvious life-threatening challenges of desertification. The time has come to break out of past patterns. The onus lies with no one group of nations. To achieve the needed changes.

It deeply worries many people who are seeking ways to place those concerns on the political agendas. It is frustrating the attempts of political and economic institutions. The next few decades are crucial. We are unanimous in our conviction that the security.

But despite our widely differinq backqrounds and varyinq national and international responsibilities. This campaiqn must start now if sustainable human proqress is to be achieved.. The chanqes in human attitudes that we call for depend on a vast campaiqn of education. First and foremost. And it is to people that we address our report. The members of the World Commission on Environment and Development came from 21 very different nations. In our discussions. The Earth is one but the world is not.

We all depend on one biosphere for sustaining our lives. Yet each community. Some consume the Earth's resources at a rate that would leave little for future generations. Yet progress has been made. Throughout much of the world. In many parts. Such progress provides hope as we contemplate the improvements still needed. The failures that we need to correct arise both from poverty and from the short-sighted way in which we have often pursued prosperity. Many parts of the world are caught in a vicious downwards spiral: Poor people are forced to overuse environmental resources to survive from day to day.

The prosperity attained in some parts of the world is often precarious. But generally these pressures were local. Today the scale of our interventions in nature is increasing and the physical effects of our decisions spill across national frontiers. The growth in economic interaction between nations amplifies the wider consequences of national decisions. Economics and ecology bind us in ever-tightening networks.

These deepening interconnections are the central justification for the establishment of this Commission. We travelled the world for nearly three years. At special pUblic hearings organized by the Commission. We found everywhere deep pUblic concern for the environment, concern that has led not just to protests but often to changed behaviour. The challenge is to ensure that these new values are more adequately reflected in the principles and operations of political and economic structures.

We also found grounds for hope: But for this to happen, we must understand better the symptoms of stress that confront us, we must identify the causes. Environmental stress has often been seen as the result of the growing demand on scarce resources and the pollution generated by the rising living standards of the relatively affluent. But poverty itself pollutes the environment, creating environmental stress in a different way.

Those who are poor and hungry will often destroy their immediate environment in order to survive: They will cut down forests; their livestock will overgraze grass lands; they will overuse marginal land; and in growing numbers they will crowd into congested cities. The cumUlative effect of these changes is so far-reaching as to make poverty itself a major global scourge. On the other hand, where economic growth has led to improvements in living standards, it has sometimes been achieved in ways that are globally damaging in the longer term.

Much of the improvement in the past has been based on the use of increasing amounts of raw materials, energy, chemicals, and synthetics and on the creation of pollution that is not adequately accounted for in figuring the costs of production processes. These trends have had unforeseen effects on the environment. Thus today'S environmental challenges arise both from the lack of development and from the unintended consequences of some forms of economic growth.

Poverty There are more hungry people in the world today than ever before in human history, and their numbers are growing. In , there were million people in 87 developing countries not getting enough calories to prevent stunted growth and serious health risks.

This total was very slightly below the figure for in terms of share of the world population, but in terms of sheer numbers, it represented a 14 per cent increase. The World Bank predicts that these numbers are likely to go on growing. I think this Commission should give attention on how to look into the question of more participation for those people who are the object of development. Their basic needs include the right to preserve their cultural identity, and their right not to be alienated from their own society, and their own community.

So the point I want to make is that we cannot discuss environment or development without discussing political development. And you cannot eradicate poverty. The number of people living in slums and shanty towns is rising. A growing number lack access to clean water and sanitation and hence are prey to the diseases that arise from this lack. There is some progress. The pressure of poverty has to be seen in a broader context.

At the international level there are large differences in per capita income.

See Table SUch inequalities represent great differences not merely in the quality of life today. Most of the world's poorest countries depend for increasing export earnings on tropical agricultural products that are vulnerable to fluctuating or declining terms of trade. Expansion can often only be achieved at the price of ecological stress.

Yet diversification in ways that will alleviate both poverty and ecological stress is hampered by disadvantageous terms of technology transfer. Within countries. The rapid rise in population has compromised the ability to raise living standards.

These factors, combined with growing demands for the commercial use of good land. The same forces have meant that traditional shifting cultivators. So forests are being destroyed, often only to create poor farmland that cannot support those who till it. Extending cultivation onto steep slopes is increasing soil erosion in many hilly sections of both developing and developed I In many river valleys, areas chronically liable to floods are now farmed. These pressures are reflected in the rising incidence of disasters.

During the s, six times as many people died from 'natural disasters' each year as in the s. Droughts and floods, disasters among whose causes are widespread deforestation and overcultivation.

There were Such disasters claim most of their victims among the impoverished in poor nations, where sUbsistence farmers must make their land more liable to droughts and floods by clearing marginal areas. Lacking food and foreign exchange reserves. The links between environmental stress and developmental disaster are most evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Per capita food production. Human overuse of land and prolonged drought Chreaten Co turn che grass lands of Africa's Sahel region into deserc.

If people destroy vegetation in order to get land. Rain creates surface runoff. When the soil is gone. All major disaster problems in the Third World are essentially unsolved development problems. Disaster prevention is thus primarily an aspect of development. Odd Grann Secretary General. Growth lB. In some parts of the world. Many of the products and technologies that have gone into this improvement are raw material- and energy-intensive and entail a SUbstantial amount of pollution.

The consequent impact on the environment is greater than ever before in human history. Over the past century. The bulk of this increase.

The annual increase in industrial production today is perhaps as large as the total production in Europe around the end of the s. Environmental stresses also arise from more traditional forms of production. More land has been cleared for settled cultivation in the past years than in all the previous centuries of human existence. Interventions in the water cycles have increased greatly. Massive dams. In Europe and Asia. The impact of growth and rising income levels can be seen in the distribution of world consumption of a variety of resource-intensive products.

The more affluent industrialized countries use most of the world's metals and fossil fuels. This, along with the efforts to reduce the emission of pollutants, will help to contain the pressure on the biosphere. But with the increase in population and the rise in incomes, per capita consumption of energy and materials will go up in the developing countries, as it has to if essential needs are to be met.

Greater attention to resource efficiency can moderate the increase. Survival The scale and complexity of our requirements for natural resources have increased greatly with the rising levels of population and production. Nature is bountiful, but it is also fragile and finely balanced.

There are thresholds that cannot be crossed without endangering the basic integrity of the system. Moreover, the speed with which changes in resource use are taking place gives little time in which to anticipate and prevent unexpected effects. The 'greenhouse effect', one such threat to life-support systems.

The burning of fossil fuels and the cutting and burning of forests release carbon dioxide C0 2 , The accumulation in the I. The remarkable achievements of the celebrated Industrial Revolution are now beginning seriously to be questioned principally because the environment was not considered at the time, It was felt that the sky was so vast and clear nothing could ever change its colour.

After all. Today we should know better. The alarming rate at which the Earth's surface is being denuded of its natural vegetative cover seems to indicate that the world may soon become devoid of trees through clearing for human developments. This could cause sea level rises over the next 45 years large enough to inundate many low-lying coastal cities and river deltas. It could also drastically upset national and international agricultural production and trade systems. Another threat arises from the depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer by gases released during the production of foam and the use of refrigerants and aerosols.

A substantial loss of such ozone could have catastrophic effects on human and livestock health and on some life forms at the base of the marine food chain.

A variety of air pollutants are killing trees and lakes and damaging buildings and cultural treasures. The acidification of the environment threatens large areas of Europe and North America. Air pollution damage is also becoming evident in some newly industrialized countries.

In many cases the practices used at present to dispose of toxic wastes, such as those from the chemical industries. Radioactive wastes from the nuclear industry remain hazardous for centuries. Many who bear these risks do not benefit in any way from the activities that produce the wastes. It removes forever creatures of beauty and parts of our cultural heritage. This is true locally and regionally in the cases of such threats as desertification. In some cases we may already be close to transgressing critical thresholds.

More than 11 million hectares of tropical forests are destroyed per year and this. Though the activities that give rise to these dangers tend to be concentrated in a few countries. Perhaps the greatest threat to the Earth's environment. The pressures of subsistence food production. This process robs present and future generations of genetic material with which to improve crop varieties.

Most who share in the risks have little influence on the decision processes that regulate these activities. The risks increase faster than do our abilities to manage them.

The loss of forests and other wild lands extinguishes species of plants and animals and drastically reduces the genetic diversity of the world's ecosystems. Little time is available for corrective action. The search for a more viable future can only be meaningfUl in the context of a more vigorous effort to renounce and eliminate the development of means of annihilation.

Desertification involves complex interactions between humans. Each year another 6 million hectares are degraded to desert-like conditions. Many of the risks stemming from our productive activity and the technologies we use cross national boundaries. While scientists continue to research and debate causes and effects. The loss of species and subspecies.

The Economic Crisis As a consequence of this period of slow growth in the world economy. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Previously our main concerns centred on the effects of development on the environment.

In one area after another. The slowdown in the momentum of economic expansion and the stagnation in world trade in the s challenged all nations' abilities to react and adjust. Doubling Development Finance: Meeting a Globa I Challenge. OVer half of all developing countries actually experienced declining per capita GDP in the years and per capita GDP has fallen.

Developing countries that rely on the export of primary products have been hit particularly hard by falling commodity prices. This basic connection was brought into sharp focus by the environment and development crises of the s. Between and Such links mean that several different problems must be tackled simUltaneously. Thus economics and ecology must be completely integrated in decision-making and lawmaking processes I. Thus agricultural pOlicies may lie at the root of land.

Environment and development are not separate challenges. Development cannot sUbsist upon a deteriorating environmental resource base. And success in one area. These problems cannot be treated separately by fragmented institutions and policies. These qualities have often been used constructively to achieve development and environmental progress: They are linked in a complex system of cause and effect. Failures to manage the environment and to sustain development threaten to overwhelm all countries.

Yet at a time when mUltilateral institutions. Some technological advances. Air pollution and acidification play their part in killing forests and lakes. For example. These stresses all threaten economic development. But this is not enough. Many international economic problems remain unresolved: Developing country indebtedness remains serious. Many countries have increased food production and reduced population growth rates. Energy policies are associated with the global greenhouse effect.

Human progress has always depended on our technical ingenuity and a capacity for cooperative action. The heaviest burden in international economic adjustment has been carried by the world's poorest people. The consequence has been a considerable increase in human distress and the overexploitation of land and natural resources to en.

The trend is towards a decline in multilateralism and an assertion of national dominance. And the notion of an international responsibility for development has virtually disappeared. House of Commons. The atmosphere carries air pollution over vast distances. Is it realistic to see ourselves as managers of an entity out there called the environment.

Economy is not just about the production of wealth. Hence new approaches must involve programmes of social development. Major accidents. Ecosystems do not respect national boundaries. That choice. Water pollution moves through shared rivers.

Many environment-economy links also operate globally. For instance. When we organize ourselves starting from this premise. It could be argued that the distribution of power and influence within society lies at the heart of most environment and development challenges. We are now just beginning to realize that we must find an alternative to our ingrained behaviour of burdening future generations resulting from our misplaced belief that there is a choice between economy and the environment.

National boundaries have become so porous that traditional distinctions between matters of local.

Charles Caccia Member of Parliament. Soils and other environmental resources suffer in both systems. Each country may devise national agricultural policies to secure short-term economic and political gains.

Frolov Editor-in-Chief. We should not only promote the expansion of its material. Society has failed to give the responsibility for preventing environmental damage to the 'sectoral' ministries and agencies whose policies cause it. The word is often taken to refer to the I. We need new social. In most countries. What is required is a new approach in which all nations aim at a type of development that integrates production with resource conservation and enhancement.

The ability to anticipate and prevent environmental damage will require that the ecological dimensions of policy be considered at the same time as the economic. The concept of sustainable development provides a framework for the integration of environment policies and development strategies. Mankind is on the threshold of a new stage in its development.. Thus our environmental management practices have focused largely upon after-the-fact repair of damage: But that will not be enough.

In the past. No country can develop in isolation from others. But it is fundamental that the transition to sustainable development be managed jointly by all nations. Each nation will have to work out its own concrete policy implications. Long-term sustainable growth will require far-reaching changes to produce trade.

The pursuit of sustainable development requires changes in the domestic and international policies of every nation. Yet irrespective of these differences. Economic growth always brings risk of environmental damage.

Sustainable development seeks to meet the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future. Far from requiring the cessation of economic growth.

But the integration of environment and development is required in all countries. No single blueprint of sustainability will be found. And there are peoples here in Brazil. But policy makers guided by the concept of sustainable development will necessarily work to assure that growing economies remain firmly attached to their ecological roots and that these roots are protected and nurtured so that they may support growth over the long term.

It is very important to remember that when the possibilities for life are over. Hence the pursuit of sustainable development requires a new orientation in international relations. The mechanics of increased international cooperation required to assure sustainable development will vary from sector to sector and in relation to particular institutions.

Environmental protection is thus inherent in the concept of sustainable development. World Population and Production: Trends and Outlook New York: Twentieth Century Fund. Statistical Yearbook New York: Prevention Be"ter Than Cure. WMO No. Haqman et al. New York. General Assembly. Poverty and Hunger: Footnotes 11 World Bank. Ecological Economics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Ekins, P. Faucheux, M. O'Connor y J. Van der Straaten eds. Sustainable Development: Concepts, Rationalities and Strategies.

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These compartments have begun to dissolve. The challenge is to manage the process so as to avoid a severe deterioration in the quality of life.

MELITA from Amarillo
I do fancy reading novels quietly. Also read my other posts. I have a variety of hobbies, like valencian pilota.