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Java2 The Complete Reference Book Pdf

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He is the author of numerous bestsellers, including Java 2: The Complete Reference, Java 2: A Beginner's Guide, Java 2 Programmers Reference, C++: The. PDF | On Aug 11, , Hamza Arif and others published java 2 complete reference Book. Full-text available. Jul Dr Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy. Description: Java The Complete Reference 11th edition - The Definitive Java Guide > Fully updated for Java SE 11, Java: The Complete Reference, The Java Complete Reference 10th Edition or The Java 2 Complete Reference?.

Ans: Final variable: Once a variable is declared as final, then the value of the variable could not be changed. It is like a constant. No class can extend the final class.

Q 38 What is a Thread? Ans: In Java, the flow of a execution is called Thread. Every java program has at least one thread called main thread, the Main thread is created by JVM. The user can define their own threads by extending Thread class or by implementing Runnable interface.

Threads are executed concurrently. Ans: There are two ways available in order to make a thread.

The thread is available in java. We can overload the run method in our class.

For that we should provide the implementation for run method which is defined in the interface. Ans: Join method is used to join one thread with the end of the currently running thread. When it reaches the code t.

Java (programming language)

Once it reaches the code t. It is a non-static method. Join method has overloaded version. Q 41 What does yield method of the Thread class do? So that equal priority threads have a chance to run. It is a static method. Yield method moves the thread back to the Runnable state only, and not the thread to sleep , wait or block. Ans: wait method is used to make the thread to wait in the waiting pool. When a wait method is executed during a thread execution then immediately the thread gives up the lock on the object and goes to the waiting pool.

Wait method tells the thread to wait for a given amount of time.


Then the thread will wake up after notify or notify all method is called. Wait and the other above-mentioned methods do not give the lock on the object immediately until the currently executing thread completes the synchronized code.

It is mostly used in synchronization.

Ans: Given below are few differences between notify method and notifyAll method notify notifyAll This method is used to send a signal to wake up a single thread in the waiting pool. This method sends the signal to wake up all the threads in a waiting spool. Q 44 How to stop a thread in java? Explain about sleep method in a thread? Ans: We can stop a thread by using the following thread methods. Sleeping Blocked Sleep: Sleep method is used to sleep the currently executing thread for the given amount of time.

Once the thread is wake up it can move to the runnable state. Non-JVM[ edit ] Some platforms offer direct hardware support for Java; there are micro controllers that can run Java bytecode in hardware instead of a software Java virtual machine, [50] and some ARM -based processors could have hardware support for executing Java bytecode through their Jazelle option, though support has mostly been dropped in current implementations of ARM.

Automatic memory management[ edit ] Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory in the object lifecycle. The programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible for recovering the memory once objects are no longer in use.

Once no references to an object remain, the unreachable memory becomes eligible to be freed automatically by the garbage collector. Something similar to a memory leak may still occur if a programmer's code holds a reference to an object that is no longer needed, typically when objects that are no longer needed are stored in containers that are still in use. If methods for a non-existent object are called, a null pointer exception is thrown. In some languages, memory for the creation of objects is implicitly allocated on the stack or explicitly allocated and deallocated from the heap.

In the latter case, the responsibility of managing memory resides with the programmer. If the program does not deallocate an object, a memory leak occurs. If the program attempts to access or deallocate memory that has already been deallocated, the result is undefined and difficult to predict, and the program is likely to become unstable or crash.

This can be partially remedied by the use of smart pointers , but these add overhead and complexity. Note that garbage collection does not prevent logical memory leaks, i. Garbage collection may happen at any time.

Ideally, it will occur when a program is idle. It is guaranteed to be triggered if there is insufficient free memory on the heap to allocate a new object; this can cause a program to stall momentarily.

Explicit memory management is not possible in Java. This allows the garbage collector to relocate referenced objects and ensures type safety and security.

This was a conscious decision by Java's designers for performance reasons. Java contains multiple types of garbage collectors. By default, HotSpot uses the parallel scavenge garbage collector. Paradoxically, the presence of a garbage collector has faded the necessity of having an explicit destructor method in the classes, thus rendering the management of these other resources more difficult.

The Javadoc style of commenting allows the user to run the Javadoc executable to create documentation for the program and can be read by some integrated development environments IDEs such as Eclipse to allow developers to access documentation within the IDE.

It must first be compiled into bytecode, using a Java compiler , producing a file named HelloWorldApp. Only then can it be executed, or launched. The Java source file may only contain one public class, but it can contain multiple classes with other than public access modifier and any number of public inner classes. When the source file contains multiple classes, make one class introduced by the class keyword public preceded by the public keyword and name the source file with that public class name.

A class that is not declared public may be stored in any.

The compiler will generate a class file for each class defined in the source file. The name of the class file is the name of the class, with.

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The keyword public denotes that a method can be called from code in other classes, or that a class may be used by classes outside the class hierarchy. The class hierarchy is related to the name of the directory in which the. This is called an access level modifier.Ruby Core Reference Pulled straight from the source code using RDoc, this reference work documents all of the core classes and modules like String, Array, Symbol, etc….

When it reaches the code t.

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