O PODER SIMBOLICO PIERRE BOURDIEU PDF
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In health institutions, can be identified social relations historically constructed by the subfield agents constituting them, and who establish themselves in almost always contradictory dynamics, but not devoid of meanings. In order to understand its readings, it is necessary to recognize its origin, i. It is intriguing to look at the various dimensions in the social field of health and the nursing subfield in particular.
There must be an understanding that health institutions are structures socially built by their agents, and also regulate these agents' actions.
In other words, organizations define the norms, values and competencies that must be internalized by their agents. This brings us to the habitus, understood by Bourdieu as the schemes of action and thought of the dominating or dominated agents.
Thus, agents think, act and have the capacity to transform themselves and behave in a certain way according to circumstances 6. In the organizational social space, the managerial habitus of nurses is oriented to the acquisition of prestige and recognition of their peers in order to ensure the institutionally desired authority. In the social management practice, the managerial habitus represents the managers' action plan constructed from their knowledge and experience gained in the social space of training institutions and the organization where they are inserted.
Thus, the subfield of nursing is imbricated in itself by considering its historicity in the health field context and in institutions where its actions are performed. The process of acquiring the cultural capital invested by nurses contributes to the construction of their technical and administrative knowledge, of teaching and research, and also favors their political action. These knowledge types grant competencies that subsidize the agents' habitus in different organizational contexts.
Therefore, the habitus is explicit in relationships with client and family, and with health agents in actions of caring, management of the team and services constituting the organizational structure of institutions. It is a north for understanding the power relationships established between dominant and dominated agents, and the symbolic power permeating these relations.
Bourdieu emphasizes that relationships of domination and the construction of worldviews surround the social dynamics practice, and individuals incorporate the social structure in which they live by legitimizing or reproducing it 3. Thus, we are, think and act as products of life in society and producers of social practices, either by confronting or confirming them.
The social field is an objectively structured space of relations between its agents, who occupy different positions according to the unequal distribution of symbolic resources, that is, of multiple capitals 6. Therefore, the fields are niches of confrontation of individuals' activity from where representations are legitimized. In this sense, Bourdieu "never compared a field to a game of blind forces [ The fields and subfields are constituted of an own structure, and in a certain way, are autonomous in relation to the others, but differentiated by the type of capital: economic, cultural, and social.
This fact is perceptible in the health field when observing the relationships between doctor and nurse. Although in the health organization there may be cooperation between these professionals, there are also conflicts over authority and power monopoly, because historically, doctors have legitimate authority to act and speak on behalf of this field 7. Bourdieu uses the field of power terminology to designate "the relationships of force between the social positions that guarantee to their occupants a sufficient quantum of social force - or of capital - so they have the possibility to enter in fights for power monopoly" 5.
Therefore, in the field are established conflicts, and fights for obtaining the symbolic power that produces and confirms meanings, and where values are validated and accepted by common sense.
The habitus and the code of social acceptance are formed in it. In the nursing subfield, the managerial habitus translates the constantly evolving references or models of management. They result from the complex interaction involving reflections that generate new practices stemming from social and political forces of each era that are aimed at achieving the effectiveness of a service or production sector. The insertion of a new model does not mean the extinction of previous models.
In this way, "many people have taken hold of the beliefs and premises they had developed under the old model and continued to employ it to make their decisions" 8.
The concept of habitus discusses the capacity that individuals' feelings, thoughts and actions incorporate a particular social structure. The capital represents the accumulation of forces the individual can achieve in the field. Bourdieu and Passeron refer to the habitus as subjectively internalized symbolic schemes as a function of social living. They are forms of generation and organization of the practical activity of individual agents, which take the form of mental and bodily dispositions, socially acquired ways of acting, thinking, feeling, perceiving, interpreting, classifying and evaluating 9.
Therefore, habitus addresses the schemes, the capacity that agents' feelings, thoughts and actions incorporate a certain social structure. Thus, conducts and decision making are a great challenge experienced in daily life. The same happens when agents occupy their positions, which is a symbolic power by itself, and they often face clashes and reactions. In most times, we think about how we should act, but there is not always time for reflection on how we react.
Agents of a field or subfield have common interests and establish some complicity, although this is not always explicit. At some point, they may be in different positions: dominant or dominated. Assuming that institutions establish patterns of behavior and attitudes among social agents within them, and that such patterns and attitudes are sustained by power relations, nothing happens by itself without the existence of crises and resistances.
In the subfield of nursing, nurses lead their team, but at the same time, they are subordinate to another agent within the organizational structure. In this context, the level of responsibility and authority differs depending on the position they occupy, and they face new challenges and fights.
Even so, the complicity between agents "underlies all existing conflicts and antagonisms" Given the democratic process of choice of nursing managers, there was a state of change in management patterns and time-space organization of each institution.
This is called metamorphosis, and implies the reconfiguration of institutional management imbricated with the historical, political and social specificity of health institutions, and which probably brought a degree of satisfaction, but did not fail to generate new tensions, challenges and behaviors of its agents.
Thus, the following pass through management dynamics: legal, political and economic forms of the country and the organization itself, conceptions of institution managers regarding management paradigms, matters of authority, power relations, and legitimacy crises that generate ups and downs in a dialectical movement capable of renewing and rebuilding itself.
With regard to more general issues of society in specific sectors such as the subfield of nursing, practices are not organized and only move by an inertial and evolutionary force over time. There is a dialectic of effectiveness of these movements that are constantly updated far beyond chance, or even of any mechanical determinism.
They are social and historical relations that do not make their agents innocent or guilty, but certainly put them before their possibilities of constantly remaking them. Thinking about the nursing subfield and nurses' managerial habitus also brings us to their professional training by considering that in university life, knowledge is sought through learning new things.
It is also a place of assimilation and exchange, of beliefs and values. It is a real and socially contradictory world as explained in Pierre Bourdieu's relations. In fact, the weight of that basic epistemological position the relationship of the subject to the object of study, the fact that the subject constantly records as a fact what are nothing more than value judgments Bourdieu and Chartier, It continued to be present in his permanent search for the unique status of sociological knowledge, which constantly involved the social world and its history and the subject itself which produced it intellectually; and which of course critically interpellated its academic environment, which was still much more problematic.
As if, perhaps to his regret, he had seen that some of the key concepts of his own intellectual adventure might be hidden there. This same demand was found in the first final conclusion of his study of the State: Does the Bourdieuian sociology of the State represent, therefore, an important interpretative instrument of the already extensive corpus of historical studies concerning the State, and an accurate judgment of its consideration in the present time as the key player in public life?
Academic disputes aside, the fact that there are numerous historians who are disciples of Bourdieu, and that he attentively —but also critically— watched the relations between genetic structuralism and history, suggests that there might be some methodological affinity between the two disciplines.
This may have been shown in at least two general reflections in his dialogue with the historians Lutz Raphael and Roger Chartier Bourdieu, and Bourdieu and Chartier, Indeed, some old names, some old historiographical polemics, which were emblems of a whole generation of historians of the s and s, appear in the pages of this text, as ghosts of a past time.
However, despite the interest and penetration of many of his approaches, it cannot be said that all the interpellations to the traditional culture of the State are illuminated with the same clarity.
His voice is sometimes hesitant, the historical assets that feed his emergency categories of the State are partial, restricted to those properties consistent with the key concepts of his sociological theory. Sometimes his analyses are presented in the form of programmatic proposals rather than as true results of historical or sociological research. A log of historical themes and commentary of permanently suggestive readings, the lessons from the course are particularly appealing to historians.
There is, above all, an aspect that links the work of Bourdieu as a whole, not only that on the State, to the ordinary modus operandi of the historian. They are not different from the way in which the historian demarcates the relevant properties to the object of study. Historical reason is recomposed in each field in the internal struggle between structure and habitus, and is therefore not conformed as a result of closed formulations.
Whereas his basic categories were already formed between the s and s, he never stopped examining them in his subsequent editorial projects.
They are open propositions that his critics and commentators have often tried to unravel, and in many other cases to contest.
Still, the fact remains that these sociological categories are extracted from the analysis of the contemporary social world. In a broad sense, this is still a general characterisation of the trans-historical and universal result that he considered to be produced in all scientific knowledge based on a historical activity, circumscribed to a time and a space, as proposed in his latest analyses on science Bourdieu, b : Can it be said that this trans-historical operation is thoroughly fulfilled in its sociological and historical considerations on the State?
To a great extent, it is, although with some reservations. As some commentators have remarked regarding another key work of his theoreticalpractical corpus The Distinction , in this work his theory of domination and legitimacy, the core of his conception of the social world, pre-exist any empirical or historical foundations, and constitute the only interpretative framework of the data provided by research in these areas Fabiani, Thus, his discourse does not cease to generate some misunderstandings directly derived from these bases, manifested both in the plane of his conceptions of the historical State and of his practical positions with regard to the form of the state of his time.
A first problem concerns the concepts of power and violence, especially the latter, which are inseparably attached to symbolic adjectivation. It seems clear that such use is removed from the ordinary value of use of the concept.
One could even take for granted the equivalence between repression and power, although it is masked here in the form of symbolic domination. If the key to the emergence of the State is symbolic violence, the acceptance of the arbitrary and coercive presuppositions encountered at the origin of social normativity in the form of doxa, history with its specific factual methodology could hardly find a safe anchor for trans-historical rationality unless resort is made to a remote and indeterminate origin, a time and a form in which power or violence are simply coercion or physical violence; or unless, outside of the historical discipline, one resorts to a religious, philosophical or psychoanalytic founding myth, which inaugurates the historical time of a social order and a culture.
Foucault at least adopted war and the imbalance of forces generated in it as a primordial fact of the power and structures of State domination, guided by the important historical instances that had proven it to be the determining factor in the birth of modern states Foucault, . Instead, Bourdieu wanted to focus on what he regarded as his main contribution to the genesis of the State: This is what ultimately gives consistency to the symbolic order of relations between historical actors.
By faking such relations by concealing them under formulas of symbolic coercion or violence, Bourdieu, to his regret, introduced a second misunderstanding, in this case about what the State has become in the world today.
This bias has blurred the historical rational disposition the concentration and universalisation of state capitals that in each historical stage has been fulfilled to the detriment of the particular interests and opinions of the historical agents of the State.
On the basis of such a dialectic, it has been said that Bourdieu started out with a critique of intellectualism as Marx did and ended up as Hegel did mobilising under the banner of an internationale of intellectuals or under of the universality of the State Burawoy, It may not be necessary to go that far.
O poder simbólico. Pierre Bourdieu
However, it is possible to glimpse an end of history in its State itinerary or at least a pause to it , as if all the potentialities of that State had not been exhausted in the present world of course, in the Eurocentric and French world, which is the one of his fundamental perspectives of analysis Scott, As early as , the course aimed to unravel some perplexities that soon would be a constant cause of uneasiness for him as a man of science interested in the destiny of the men of his time; the Bourdieu of the survey on world poverty and the Contre-feux faced with the neo-liberal invasion Bourdieu, b , , b , that of the excited words spoken to trade unionists and to the railway workers on strike Fabiani, The State that constructs realities and doxic submissions appears there as a value built on the potentialities of human achievement, especially since the eighteenth century.
It is this State that is now being dismantled, the State challenged by some privileged sectors as a strategy, in their words, to have everything the benefits of liberalism, the benefits of freedom, the benefits of state dependence and not pay anything for it; the State, ultimately whose space is being occupied, in its retreat, by religion, individualism and other myths Bourdieu, Specifically, these were Bourdieu, a , Bourdieu, b and Bourdieu, a.
He had previously published another text closely related to these ones, Bourdieu, In its preliminary pages he summarised the path that had led him from the phenomenology of affective life to an objective view of the peasant social world.
The work of this commission was analysed in Bourdieu, Pierre, Christin, Rosine, Collected from one of his most precious sources on the subject of the State for reasons of methodological affinity, the German historian Ernst Kantorowicz Bourdieu, a: The most emblematic works by these authors to which Bourdieu refers were Elias,  , and the second part of Elias,  , Tilly, , Tilly,  and Corrigan, Sayer, Various publications on the subject are collected together in in Bourdieu, b and Bourdieu, This was first published in German under the title Ein Soziologischer Selbstversuch.
Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, The French edition was published only two years later, Bourdieu, The Field of Fields. Fundamentos, Madrid. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, , novembre: Fayard, Paris.
We assume that science has always been an essentially practical activity that presupposes a specific habitus, the scientific, and centered our focus on the praxis of science, on the final products that are valued as most legitimate and representative of this practice.
BOURDIEU, Pierre. O Poder Simbólico
Pierre Bourdieu defines this habitus as: "Scientific habitus is a made man-made rule, or rather, a scientific modus operandi that functions in a practical state according to the norms of science without having these norms as its origin: it is this kind of scientific game sense that makes you do what needs to be done at the right time, without the need to thematize on what has to be done, much less the rules that permit the generation of appropriate conduct.
In our case, we studied the acts described in the indicators present in the Lattes Platform curricula. We sought to relate these data with the general results of the FCM's internal groups, as a way of questioning how this productivist model influences, for better or worse, the collective status of each research area.
Materials and methods As a working methodology, Bourdieu always used a diversified approach to the objects. His qualitative analyses were focused on explaining the actions characteristic of individuals of a particular group, in the different ways that expressions of the habitus were vested and on the power of social differentiation relational of these personal styles.
His quantitative efforts always sought to rupture with a "spontaneous sociology", of "common sense" and frequently of "scientific common sense", and through this initial rupture, set out to achieve an innovative and relational sociology Bourdieu et al. Within this theoretical framework, we used a quantitative methodology and our efforts spun on this analytical axis.
Using descriptive statistics, we designed and analyzed the main characteristics of these professors via the Lattes Platform curricula, as a way of objectivating indicators of the scientific consecration and official praxis of these intellectuals.
Since , it is compulsory for all researchers to maintain their curricula up-to-date. It is an Electronic Curricula System that records the life history and current history of the researchers inscribed and acts as a fundamental element in the analysis of their merit and competence.
The curriculum is a form of currency, when it comes to gaining access to formal data by researchers for academic purposes; it is used by master's and doctoral students, researchers, professors, administrators and all institutions in the domain of higher education.
Developed in , it supported the implementation of the institution's Quality Project and since then, it is responsible for the funding and development of the database that contains "activity reports of the professors, the organs of the UNICAMP and production of the annals of institutional research" SIPEX, These two sets of documents were hegemonically understood as a description of specific acts considered legitimate and symbolically legitimized by the scientific community.
Object of the research The FCM is a social organization inserted within the field of science and a social institution. Since its inception, sociology has been concerned with the study of institutions: for Durkheim and his school, "institutions are 'crystallized' ways of feeling and thinking, almost constant, socially coercive and distinctive in a given social group" Boudon, Bourricaud, , p.
In this sense, an institution means a type of action, role, interaction or organization that has become widely accepted and appears to be a natural pattern of society. In this study, we worked with a more formal definition of Durkheim, linked to the formal and legal framework of society. In the academic world, we chose postgraduate studies. The concept here is one of "intellectual craftsmanship", as proposed by Mills , linked to a historical tradition and a modus operandi specific to each type of research, past and taught in postgraduate education through direct, continuous contact between the professors and students.
Postgraduate education is the place par excellence of the production and renewal of knowledge. Postgraduate Programs conform to the mode of recruitment, selection, attraction, scientific legitimacy and the formation of smaller groups, centered on the figure of certain great researchers, in short, in accordance with the reproduction of the status of the institution and the scientific field.
From the universe of professionals of the institution involved in stricto sensu postgraduate studies, both master's and doctoral degrees, Assistant, Associate and Full Professors were considered to be the object, excluding visiting and adjunct professors; a total of individuals.
Resolution GR No. This profile, imposed by the Quality Project, signified the victory and implementation of the viewpoint of professionals who favored research and the group that was primarily dedicated to academic achievement. The founding group of professors, closely linked to the model of the private practice doctor, had to make an effort to adapt or opted for part-time work at the institution.
Of these professors, 21 were from the nursing course, leaving from the medical school. We excluded those catalogued in more than one postgraduate program total of 16 , regarding their department of origin as the most important. In this case, the exclusion of nursing professors was based on the methodological choice to work with professors specifically linked to medicine, the majority of whom were involved in the postgraduate programs, because it is our understanding that nursing and medicine are two distinct careers, each with their own deontology and historical development, as recent studies like that by Santos and Faria have begun to elucidate more clearly.
From the remaining total of professors in , possessed a Lattes Curriculum, leading to the loss of eight professors during the quantitative analysis. Although undesirable, in some cases this loss corresponded to a transition between platforms SIPEX-Lattes within the UNICAMP, which up to that point were filled out alternatively, coupled with the failure by some individuals to maintain a complete curriculum, pure and simple.
The FCM and research in Brazil According to Meis and Leta , an increase in Brazilian research occurred from to , both in the total number of publications and participation in the global volume of scientific literature, although only a third of Brazilian production is present in international journals.
This growth trend continued and from to , the percentage of Brazilian articles in world production rose from 0. These are considered to be the most important Brazilian universities, using different criteria of an academic nature. Quality Project or Procrustean bed CAPES became an agency focused on evaluation from onward, when it created a program evaluation of postgraduate courses through consultants external to the programs.
This meant the penetration of a model of science focused on academic excellence within the universities, derived from the vision embraced by CAPES.
This management project, begun in , was established and implemented effectively during the office of Dean Carlos Vogt, from to He officially sought to encourage improvement in quality and increased scientific production at the UNICAMP, through the qualification of undergraduate courses, diagnosed as neglected within the UNICAMP, which was directed mainly toward research, and the restructuring of teaching careers and specific management programs.
The institutional objectives were addressed and achieved, only the qualitative results of this process remain to be qualified. Presentation of the results Based on data from the Lattes Curricula, we highlight the changes that occurred in the institution and the characteristics of the professionals who constructed their current vanguard position in the Brazilian scientific scenario.
Initiating with the FCM and we then describe the profile of the typical researcher of this university. Quality Project at the FCM Following the implementation of the Quality Project, an imperative to adapt occurred, accompanied by flagrant difficulties in the transition between the two models.
The mechanisms included: requirement of higher academic titles among newly hired professors PhD , the stipulation of deadlines to achieve the same in the case of professors who were already part of the institution, encouragement to participate in scientific events, and even the readjustment of the framework of teaching careers. This transition process favored groups who wanted to gain power within the institution, based on scientific legitimacy and accumulation of the corresponding capital; they were better prepared for research production, had social networks social capital abroad, and had invested in the means of obtaining research funding.
These groups set the scene and began to share the original power, established since the founding of the FCM, with the local group that had been called to found the university, formed by traditional physicians and practitioners in the region. For this new period, the indicators of the FCM were as follows: It is clear that a significant increase in publications occurred at the FCM, from to articles in the period, focusing on international ranking journals.
At the end of the period, for every article published in a national journal roughly three were published in journals abroad. The number of professors dropped from to , signifying a decrease of around The number of master's dissertations and doctoral theses grew progressively by almost 2.
The average was theses per year, implying an average of 0. A mean of 0. In general, these rates grew consistently and continuously, except for publications in national journals, which fell over the same period.
Clearly, the process of change was irreversible within the university and the triumvirate teaching-research-extension gained the strength of a creed, a highly present ideology in the daily life of the university. Few argue, however, concerning the condition of the professors who are instituted and charged as administrators of the institution.
This process certainly accompanied the changing profile of universities throughout Brazil, but in the case of FCM, initially dedicated to the formation of private practice doctors for local demand, the process was longer and more painful, because it involved a significant change the type of professional required by the institution.
Profile of the researcher The medical profession has shown a progressive and significant influx of women. This process should consistently alter the gender balance in the future, but thus far, a male majority remains in the FCM, The mean age of professors is The majority fall within the range of 45 to 49 years-old Thus, more than half are between 45 and 54 years of age, a proportion of approximately Concerning educational qualifications, the vast majority of professors are doctors Complete data regarding the degree of absorption of medical graduates from UNICAMP within the university staff are unavailable, but there are strong indications that the profile of the private practice medical professional was subject to strong change in the formative period of the FCM.
The idea of remaining at the UNICAMP, as a professor and researcher within a research career in basic areas, was not a majority trend in the early s. Later, this type of career became more attractive due to changes in the profile of professionals, especially for doctors. A significant proportion of professors of the institution This trend of endogeneity is significant, though the task remains of comparing these rates with other universities to enrich our understanding of this dynamic.
Accompanying this trend of internal recruitment of graduates by the institution and their permanence among the staff, according to the Lattes Platform, some groups provided more professionals for the body of professors at UNICAMP. Two moments of greater significance were emphasized: the first, in and , when strong rates occurred of Briefly, of those who remained within the institution, This mass of publications indicates a peculiarity that will be analyzed in greater detail in future studies.
The managerial standard of institutions managers was based on one or more references of the administration field in order to serve the interests and assumptions of organizations within a context of time. Email address for updates. In the face of acquired experience, agents tend to stick to daily practices of life that have left advantageous acquisitions by making analogies from previous situations.
In this course the character became present and unveiled the key to that present absence. Thus, more than half are between 45 and 54 years of age, a proportion of approximately It included fourteen Brazilian family doctors and fifteen Italian family doctors.
In order to understand its readings, it is necessary to recognize its origin, i. Its main theoretical basis is the Pierre Bourdieu's symbolic power theory, complemented, in the non-conflictive aspects, by the Anthony Giddens' institutional perspective on the field genesis motivational factors. Rio de Janeiro:
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