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In addition to this they produced sesamum We come across a series of brick platforms and mustard.

As B. Each granary measured Foodgrains were stored in huge metres and lay within a few metres of the granaries in both Mohenjo-daro and Harappa river bank. The combined floor space of the and possibly in Kalibangan.

Probably, cereals twelve units would be about square were received as taxes from peasants and metres. Approximately it had the same area stored in granaries for the payment of wages as the Great Granary at Mohenjo-daro.

This Harappa also shows two-roomed barracks, can be said on the analogy of Mesopotamian which possibly accommodated laboures. The At Kalibangan also we notice in the indus people were the earliest people to southen part brick platforms, which may have produce cotton.

Because cotton was first been used for granaries. Thus, it would peoduced in this are Greeks called it sindon, appear that granaries constituted an which is derived from Sindh. Domestication of Animals The use of burnt bricks in the Hrappan cities is remarkable, because in the Although the Harappans practised contemporary buildings of Egypt mainly agriculture, animals were kept on a large dried bricks were used.

We find the use of scale. Ox, buffaloes, goats, sheep and pigs baked bricks in contemporary Mesopotamia, were domesticated. The humped bulls were but they were used to a much larger extent favoured by the Harappans. From the very in the Harappan cities. The drainage system beginning dogs were regarded as pets.

Cats of Mohenjo-daro was very impressive. In were also domesticated, and signs of the feet almost all cities every big or small house had of both dogs and cats have been noticed. In They also kept asses and camels, which were Kalibangan many houses had their wells.

Evidence Water flowed from the house to the streets of the horse comes from a superficial level of which had drains. Sometimes these drains Mohenjo-daro and from a doubtful terracotta figuring from Lothal. The Harappans were also Gujarat, and belong to around B. The potters wheel doubtful. In any case the Harappan culture was in full use, and the Harappans produced was not horse-centred.

Neither the bones of their own characteristic pottery, which was horse nor its representations appear in early made glossly and shinning. Elephants were Trade well known to the Harappans, who were also Trade was important in the life os the acquainted with the rhinoceros. Indus people. The Harappans carried on con- Technology and Carafts siderable trade in stone, metal, shell, etc, The Harappan culture belongs to the within the Indus culture zone.

However, their Bronze Age. The people of Harappa used cities did not possess the necessary raw ma- many tools and implements of stone, but they terial for the commodities they produced. Most prob- and use of bronze. Ordinarily bronze was ably they carried on all exchanges through made by the smiths by mixing tin with copper barter.

In return for finished goods and pos- mines of Rajasthan, although it could also be sibly foodgrains, they procured metals from brought from Baluchistan. Tin was possibly the neighbouring area sby boats and bullock- brought with difficulty from Afghanistan. They practised navigation of the coast The bronze tools and weapons recovered of the Arabian Sea. They knew the use of from the Harappan sites; contain a smaller wheel, and carts with solid wheels were in percentage of tin.

However, the kit of bronze use in Harappa. The Harappa had commecial goods left by the Harappans is cosiderable, links with one area of Rajasthan, and also which suggests that the bronzesmiths with Afghanistan and Iran. They had set up constituted an important group of artisans a trading colony in northern Afghanistan which evidently facilitated trade with Cen- in the Harappan society.

They produced not tral Asia. Their cities also carried commerce only images and utensils but also various tools with those in the land of the Tigris and the and weapons such as axes, saws, knives and Euphrates. Many Harappan seals have been spears. Several other important crafts discovered in Mesopotania, and it seems that flourished in the Harappan towns.

A piece of the Harappans imitated some consmetics used woven cotton has been recovered from by the urban people of Mesopotamia. Mohenjo-daro, and textile impressions found The Mesopotamia records from about on several objects. Spindle whorls were used B. Weavers wove cloth of wool and with Meluha, which was the ancient name cotton.

Huge brick structures suggest that given to the Indus region. The Mesopotamian brick-laying was an important craft. They texts speaks of two intermediate trading sta- also attest the existence of a class of masons. Dilmun The goldsmiths made jewellery of silver, gold can probably be identified with Bahrain on and precious stones; the first two may have the Persian Gulf.

Unlike the Egyptians and organization of the Harappans. But if we take Mesopotamians, the Harappans did not write into account the cultural homegeneity of the long inscriptions. Most inscriptions were Indus civilization it can be said that this recorded on seals, and contain only a few cultural homogeneity would not have been words.

Altogether we have about to possible to achieve without a central pictographs, and in the form of a picture each authority. If the Harappan cultural zone is the Harappan script is not alphabetical but considered identical with the political zone, mainly pictographic. They show that in weighing is demonstrated by its continuity for nearly mostly 16 or its multiples were used; for years. Religions Practices Interestingly the tradition of 16 has continued In Harappa numerous terracotta figures in India till modern times and till recently 16 of women have been found.

Probably the annas made one rupee. The harappans also image represents the goddess of earth. The knew the art of measurement. We have come Harappans, looked upon the earth as a across sticks inscribed with measure marks; fertility goddess and worshipped her. The Harappans were great experts in the This god has three horned heads. He is use of the potters wheel. We come across represented in the sitting postrure of a yogi, numerous pots painted in various designs.

This god is Harappan pots were generally decorated with surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a the designs of trees and circles. The images rhinoceros, and has a buffalo below his of men also appear on some pottery throne.

At his feet appear two deer. The fragments. About The Harappan Script seals have been found, and of these a great majority carry short in-scriptions with The Harappan invented the art of pictures of the one-horned bull, the buffalo, writing like the people of ancient the tiger, the rhinocreros, the goat and the Mesopotamia. Although the earliest specimen elephant. A woman dancer not been deciphered so far. Except There are nearly 4, specimens of for a necklac she is naked.

One steatite sudden subsidence or uplift of the land which statue wears an ornamented robe over the caused floods. Earthquakes caused changes left shoulder under the right arm, and its in the course of the Indus which led to the short locks at the back of the head are kept inundation of fee hinterland of Mohenjo- tidy by a woven fillet.

And still others point out that the Origin, Maturity and End Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans, but there is very little evidence for The mature Harappan culture, broadly this.

Throughout the period of its existence The consequences of the disintegration it seems to have retained the same kind of of the largest Bronze Age cultural entity are tools, weapons and houses.

The whole style still to be clarified. We do not know whether of life appears to be uniform. We notice the the urban eclipse led to the migration of same town-planning, the same seals, the same merchants and craftsmen, and the terracotta works, and the same long chet dissemination of the elements of Harappan blades.

But the view stressing changelessness technology and way of life in the countryside. We do notice Something is known about the post-urban changelessness cannot be pushed too far.

We situation in Sindh, Punjab and Haryana. We do notice changes in the pottery of Mohenjo- find agricultural settlements inside the Indus daro over a period of time. By the region, but their connection with the nieneteenth century B. We need clear cities of the Harappan culture, Harappa and and adequate information.

Aryans belonged to one race, but their culture While the ancient cutlures of was more or less of the same type. They were Mesopotamia continued to exist even after distinguished by their common language.

Various which are current in changed forms all over causes have been suggested. It is held that Europe, Iran and the greater part of the the amount of rainfall in the Indus region Indian subcontinent Originally the Aryans slightly increased around B. This may have adversely Asia. Their earlist life seems to have been affected agriculture and stockbreeding. Some mainly postoral, agriculture being a describe the decline to the decreasing fertility secondary occupation.

Although the Aryans on account of the increasing salinity of the used several animals, the horse played the soil caused by the expansion of the most significant role in their life. Its swiftness neighbouring desert. Asia from about called naditama or the best of the rivers in B.

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Indo-Iranians lived for a long time. We hear of many defeats inflicted by The term Arya occurs 36 times in this text, Indra on the enemies of the Aryans. In the and generally indicates a cultural community.

The European languages. It is a collection of Aryans succeeded everywhere because they prayers offered to Agni, Indra, Mitra, Verun possessed chariots driven by horses, and and others gods by various families of poets intorduced them for the first time into West or sages. It consists of ten mandalas or books, Asia and India. Books I and X seem to have been vaiman and better arms. According to tradition, the Aryans were The Rig Veda has many things in divided into five tribed panchajana but there common with the Avesta, which is the holdest might have been other tribes also.

The text in the Iranian language. The two texts Bharatas and the Tritsu were the ruling Aryan use the same names for several gods and even clans, and they were supported by priest for social classes. But the earliest specimen Vasisththa. The country Bharatavarsha was of the Indo-European language is found in eventually named after the tribe Bharata, an inscription of about B. The Later such specimens occur in Hittite Bharata ruling clan was opposed by a host of inscriptions in Anatolia Turkey from the ten chiefs, five of whom were heads of Aryan nineteenth to the seventeenth centuries B.

The battle that was fought between of about about B. The Battle of Ten Kings. This battle was fought earliest Aryans lived in the geographical area on the river Parushni, identical with the river covered by eastern Afghanistan, North-West Ravi and it gave victory to Sudas and estab- Frontier Province, Punjab and fringes of lished the supremacy of the Bharatas.

Of the western Uttar Pradesh. Some rivers of defeated tribes, the most Important was that Afghanistan such as the river Kubha, and the of the Purus. Subequently the Bharatas joined river Indus and its five branches, are hands with the Purus and formed a new rul- mentioned in the Rig Veda.

The Sindhu, ing tribe called the Kurus. They also used Mahabharata. They set up their capital at in the upper Gangetic basin in circa Hastinapur situated in the district of Meerut. In addition thus formed the Rum people. Kauravas and the Pandavas. In later to hold the ground. They came to be dominated by the members of the upper vernas.

Excavations Widespread Painted Grey Ware sites are show that iron weapons such as arrow-heads found not only in western Uttar Pradesh and and spear-heads came to be commonly used Delhi. According to ancient increased at their cost The vidatha completely legends. They may be called made of iron have been found. For the wiped out. Dharwar district in Karnataka. The use of rice is Bihar. Towards the end of the Vedic mostly belonging to the upper Gangetic basin. It is called period.

Hastinapur and is called shyama or krishna ayas in the later Kaushambi near Allahabad can be regarded Vedic texts. The sabha and samiti continued of Sita. The earliest iron Vedic texts we can trace only the faint implements discovered in this area belong to beginnings of towns towards the end of the the seventh Century B. In subsequent times The formation of bigger kingdoms made wheat became the staple food of the people the chief or the king more powerful.

With iron weapons the Vedic people Haryana. Also we can court nearly sites. Although Koshala is associated with recommended in Vedic rituals. Women were no longer The Vedic people continued to produce permitted to sit on the sabha.

Certain sections of artisans such as the commander. In the beginning Social Organization each area was named after the tribe which The later Vedic society came to be settled there first. Other people.

All the three higher varnas shared sancrifice. There were. Traces of the election of the chief or the The vaishyas constituted the common king appear In later Vedic texts.

In the discharge of his presumably as survivors of the original Aryan duties the king was assisted by the priest. At the lower level. He performed the rajasuya vaishyas. The term rashtra. At first Panchala was the divided into four vernas called the name of a people. He performed the upanayana or investiture with the sacred ashvamedha.

The growing cult of sacrificed indicates territory. He also performed the thread ceremony and the recitation of the vajapeya or the chariot race. Some of them also ordinary kinsmen or the common people worked as artisans. This succession was not always smooth. He received producing functions such as agriculture. All these rituals im- pressed the people with the increasing power Generally the later Vedic texts draw a and prestige of the king. Towerds the end of the called the vis.

The trol over an are in which the royal horse ran fourth varna was deprived of the sacred uninterrupted. But the chief tried to perpetuate Vedic period they began to engage in trade. People began to practise gotra exogamy. No Sacrifices involved the killing of animals marriage could take place between persons on a large scale and. Prayers continued to or the place where cattle belonging to the be recited.

The Later Vedic Phase 13 status. Only the first correctly in the sacrifices. In princely families the Vishnu came to be conceived as the preserver right of primogeniture was getting stronger. The guest was same lineage. Sometimes the priests life was not unknown.

Prajapati the domination. Sacrifices became far more whole clan are kept. On the other hand. Sacrifices were accompanied by well established in Vedic times. Rituals said Philosophy should be given to the priest. The sacrificer Brahmachari or student. In the post. Althoug some women theologians Vedic times. Some of the other varna distinctions had not advanced very far. In addition to cows.

Towards the end of the Veclie period Indra and Agni. Literally it means the cow-pen changed considerably. The two outstanding Rig Vedic gods. Even in post-Vedic claimed poetions of territory as dakshina. In addition. The kshatriyas ranked second in the varna The period saw the rise of a large heiracrchy.

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They circulated protest movement against the importance. We have situated at a distance of about km south- no means to find out the reactions of the east of Patna. The earliest coins against the ritualistic domination of the belong to the fifth century B. The vaishyas were engagerd in number of cities in north-eastern India.

They emphasised that the Vardhamana Mahavira. The Videha where. The brahmanas. Of these sects Jainism agricultural economy in north-eastern India. Causes of Origin agriculture and large settlements. Each varna it could not flourish without animal was assigned well-defined functions.

But the Vedic practice of killing although it was emphasised that varna was cattle indiscriminately in sacrifices stood in based on birth. These the priestly class called brahmanas.

But the kshatriyas. The Allahabad. Besides others these cities had vaishyas and the shudras. We agriculture. Naturally the varna-divided society Chirand in Saran district and Rajgir seems to have generated tensions. The use of iron tools made possible clearance. The In post-Vedic times society was clearly agricultural economy based on the iron divided into four varnas: Vaishali in the newly created barred from taking to Vedic studies.

Kusinagar in Deoria district of shudras were meant for servint the three Uttar Pradesh. In the Through kaivalyahe conquered misery brahmanical society the vaishyas ranked and happiness. He Jainism goes back to very ancient times. According attached the utmost importance to ahmsa or to Jaina tradition. In the thirteenth year. His father required for acquiring such liberation. He propagated his religion Vardhmana Mahavira and Jainism for 30 years.

Many teachings by him from previous teachers. These three are of his own area. It can Siddhartha was the head of a famous be obtained through right knowledge. They passed away at the age of 72 in B. Jainism mainly aims at the attainment which is identical with Basarh in the district of freedom from worldly bonds.

It is twenty-third tirthankara was Parshvanath said that only the fifth doctrine was added who was born in Varanasi. Mahavira led the life both involve the killing of living beings. No ritual is of Vaishali. He gave up royal by Mahavira: The last. He is said to have Doctrines of Jainism laid the foundations for orderly human Jainism taught five doctrines: Jainism of Jainism are attributed to him. The v observe continence brahmacharya. Naturally they looked for some i.

Because of this conquest he is third. The use of coins naturally facilitated when he had reached the age of Mahavir is said to be the Jainism was divided into two sects: The first According to another tradition.

From now onwards. The early Jainas years after the death of Mahavira. According to a late tradition. The second cause of the Jainism made the first serious attempt spread of Jainism in south India is said to be to mitigate the evils of the varna order and the great famine that took place in Magadha the ritualistic Vedic religion.

At the end of the famine they adoption of Prakrit by the Jainas heed the came back to Magadha. In subsequent centuries. The king Kharavela who had defeated the princes emperor became a Jaina.

Gautama also belonged to a noble family. Their religious Bhadrabahu. They observed the religious rules. His mother was a princess from the especially after the fifth century.

The south India. According to Pataliputra. In order to sort out these differences and to compile the main teachings Gautama Buddha or Siddhartha was a of Jainism a council was convened in contrmporary of Mahavira.

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Many regional languages developed out of Those who came back from the south claimed Pakrit languages. They adopted to protect themselves many a Jaina went to Prakrit language of the common people to the south under the leadership of preach their doctrines.

The discarded Sanskrit language mainly faminie lasted for twelve years. Mahavira organized an order of his land by the king for their support. This was an epoch- cover the propert of others. From the varna system. It comprised right observation. Even today Sri Lanka. Burma Myanmar. It facilitated the spread of Gautama Buddha recommended an Buddhist doctrines among the common eight-fold path ashtangika marga for the people.

Buddhism left its abiding existence of god and soul atman. This can mark on the history of India. The Buddhist. Through his agents Ashoka mit violence. The main the Buddha. Kaushambi and several republican states and their people adopted this religion.

These techining are com. Buddhism B. It particularly won trie years and then attained knowledge at the age support of the lower orders as it attacked of 35 at Bodh Gaya under a pipel tree. If a person of the sangha. Gautama Buddha also organized the elimination of human misery. Gautam Buddha caste. The only condition required right determination.

This path is sangha or the religious order. Special Features of Importance and Influence of Buddhism Buddhism and the Causes of Its Spread Despite its ultimate disppearance as an Buddhism does not recognize the organized religion. West Asia do not speak a lie. He kept on wandering for about seven of Indian religions. Tibet and parts of China most all religons. Koshala and prescribed the middle path. Once they were enrolled as follows this eight fold path he would not members of the Buddhist Church they had depend on the machinations of the priests.

He The monarchies of Magadha. Women also were admitted to the delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in sangha and thus brought on par with men. People were taken into the this time onwards he began to be called the Buddhist order without any consideration of Buddha or the enlightened. So there are three main elements in Gautama taught than a person should avoide Buddhism: The Later Vedic Phase 17 the age of The Buddha also laid down a code of conduct for his followers on the same lines Two hundred years after the death of as was done by the Jaina teachers.

Buddhism boosted Valabhi in Gujrat. The earliest Buddhism left its mark on the art of Buddhist text Suttanipata declares the cattle ancient India. The early Pali literature can be began the cave archtecture in the Barabar hills divided into three categories. From the first century A.

The first human statues to be givers of food. For the residence of the monks They enormously enriched Pali by their rooms were hewn out of the rocks. Gandhara art. The Buddhist thread nor allowed to read the Vedas. The first in Gaya and in western India acround Nasik. In the first three centuries of Buddhist teaching was to secure the salvation the Charistian era. Their monasteries developed as great centres of conversion to Buddhism freed them from such learning.

The Greek and slaughtered animals for food. Mention may be made of With its emphasis on non-violence and Nalanda and Vikramashila in Bihar. The literary society by keeping its doors open to women activities of the Buddhist monks continued and shudras. This teaching came onwards the panel images of Gautama significantly at a time when the non-Aryans Buddha began to be made. Since both women and shudras even in the Middle Ages. Piprahwa in Nepal served as another capital Magadha embraced the former districts of the Shakyas.

But the most powerful were the tals of the Mallas lay at Kushinara where Lichchhavis with their capital at Vaishali Gautama Buddha passed away. Of these Magadha. Beginning from the east we hear Koshala also included the tribal republican of the kingdom of Anga which covered the territory of the Shaky as of Kapilvastu.

Vatsa and an important city called Ayodhya. But we see the extended from the north-west frontier to beginnings of a mud fort.

One of the capi- eight clans. Koshala contained Bihar. North of the Ganga in the division of Tirhut In the neighbourhood of Koshala lay the was the state of the Vajjis which included republican clan of the Mallas. We also hear of the older states to submit to the power of Koshala. Fur- in the district of Vaishali.

Kashi with its capital at Varanasi. Gaya and parts of Shahbad. Eventually the with Piprahwa in Basti district. The Purnas push ther west lay the kingdom of the Vatsas. They were on the borders of Gonda and Bahraich mostly situated north of the Vindhyas and districts in Uttar Pradesh. In the Kaushambi was chosen because of its loca- beginning Kashi appears to be the most tion near.

The Vatsas settled until the sixth century B. Kushinara is which is identical with the village of Basarh identical with Kasia in Deoria district. The modern districts of Monghyr and Bhagalpur. In an Ashokan inscription it of patna. Although his mother was a Lichchhavi Bimbisara acquired Anga and placed it under princess.

His them in battle. This was done Bimbisara ruled for 52 years. He took three wives. He created Champa. This northern part had its capital at Uggain. It was divided into two parts. To meet this danger request Bimbisara sent the royal physician Ajatashatru began the fortification of Rajgir.

Ajatashatru In central Malwa and the adjoining parts killed his father and seized the throne for of Madhya Pradesh lay the state of the himself. Throughout his reign he pursued an Avantis.

Avanti had defeated the wise to become friends. He was a marriage to Ajatashatru and leaving him in contemporary of the Buddha. Ganga and Son at Patna. His reign is important because sides. If was surrounded by five hills. Eventually he succeeded in princess from Vaishali who gave birth to doing so because of a war engine which was Ajatashatru and his third wife was the used to throw stones like catapults.

Later when Pradyota Vatsas of Kaushambi and now threatened an was attacked by jaundice. The aggressive policy of expansion. The remins of the walls can be still seen.

He also daughter of the chief of the Madra clan of possessed a chariot to which a mace was Punjab. He started the sole possession of Kashi. It took him full 16 years to second wife Chellana was a Lichchhavi destroy Vaishali. He was succeeded by period.

Jivaka to Ujjain. Avanti with its capital at Ujjain. This made Rajgir impregnable. Ultimately Ajatashatru got the best of the Magadha came into prominence under war. He also strengthened his position dissensions in the ranks of the Lichchhavis by marriage alliances. From now onwards established the rule of the Maurya dynasty. Their greatest achievement growing weakness and unpopularity of the was the destruction of the power of Avanti Nandas in the last days of their rule.

Several Nandas.

In Udayin was succeeded by the dynasty all likelihood. This brought to an the help of Chanakya. In probably rebelled against him. Tamil nadu and other ruling princes. With with its capital at Ujjain. Their rule in Magadha was British empire. He lived in Chandragupta Maurya. According an account not only of the administration of to the brahmanical tradition he was born of the city of Pataliputra but also of the Maurya Mura.

Gorakhpur adjoining the Nepalese terai. He took advantage of the capital to Vaishali. He claimed to be ekarat. But an earlier Buddhist tradition. So great was their power Justin. Chandragupta was a member of Shishunagas. Chandragupta thus built brought an image of the Jina as a victory up a vast empire which included not only trophy. It seems that he acquired parts of north-easrtern India the Mauryas not only Kalinga but also Koshala which had ruled over the whole of the subcontinent.

Leaving Kerala. The account of Nandas. But Chandragupta The nandas added to the Magadhan power liberated north-western India from the by conquering Kalinga from where they thraldom of Selucus. The history of Ashoka is reconstructed According to Megasthenes the king was on the basis of his inscriptions. The inscriptions throw bers. Chandragupta language and Kharoshthi script. The Ashokan consisting of five members.

The provinces were divided into occurs only in copies of Minor Rock Edict still smaller units. Excavations The administration Pataliputra. According to Buddhist tradition he authentic information about the Maurya was so cruel in his early life that he killed his administration and economy. These committees were entrusted with sanitation.

He armed forces. If we believe in a statement of the Buddhist writerters. But in its north- a Huge army. According to the account of a western part they appeared in Aramaic Roman writer called Poiny.

They were generally placed on similar other functions. The account continued links with the Greek princes. Composed in Prakrit. But since the these two sources we can draw a picture of statement is based on a legend. Minor Rock Edicts. His biography. The name of Ashoka dynasty.

On the basis of 99 brothers to get the throne. Pakistan and Afghanistan. These assisted by a council. The administration of the Aramaic and Greek scripts and languages. His of Megasthenes can be supplemented by the son. Altogether they foreigners. Arthashastra gives rulers.

Sangiti was held by Ashoka and missionaries bherighosha was replaced with dhamma. On the other hand he adopted a completely prohibited the slaughter of practical policy of consolidating his empire. In other words. At any rate it to the Buddhist shrines. He took steps for the welfare He repeatedly asked his officials to tell the of men and animals in foreigh lands. He interdicted gay He retained Kalinga after its conquest and social functions in which people indulged in incorporated it into his empire.

He sent ambassadors of peace were also asked to take care of the people. As an enlightened ruler Ashoka rajukas for the administration of justice in his tiled to enlarge his area of political influence empire. Internal Policy and Buddhism After his accession to the throne. We quote below the worlds of Sri Lanka. Within the empire he Ashoka rained the Maury a empire.

He sent mission-aries for the propagating dharma among various social propagation of Buddhism to Sri Lanka and groups including women. He disapporved of rituals.

Territorial States and the First Magadhan Empire 23 and domestic polices. The fact of his visiting seems that the king war moved by the the Buddhist shrines is also suggested by the massacre in this war. Ashoka Ashoka was converted to Buddhism as fought only one major war called the Kalinga a result of the Kalinga war.

He tried to conquer them and this was the ideal of paternal kingship. He also appointed Central Asia. He forbade Kalinga war made Ashoka an extreme killing certain birds and animals. There is also revelries. As agents of the king. According to him. Burma and other countries to Ashoka from his Thirteenth Major Rock covert the people there. So he abandoned the dhamma yatras mentioned in his inscriptions. According to War.

Brahmi inscriptions Edict: Both these empires came to an hand he made gifts to non-Buddhist and even end in the middle of the third. Evidently Satavahanas acted as a stablizing factor in the he also accommodated such languages as Deccan and south to which they gave political Greek. The material culture.

Prakrit and Sanskrit and various unity and economic prosperity on the religious sects. Ashoka follwed a tolerant strength of their trade with the Roman religious policy. The original history for his policy of peace.

Hence Uttar Pradesh. Although the Gupta empire typical of the heart of the empire. Above all ashoka is important in a century from A. This was developed Gangetic basin and the backward the empire of the Guptas. He did not try to foist his empire. He worked neighbours. Uttar Pradesh seems to have such a policy.

On the other in the north. The Kushans performed the same role buddhist faith on his subjects. Ashoka was fired with zeal for missionary activities. He was the retrirement of the king in B. He had no Pradesh and Bihar at the end of the third model in early Indian history for pursuing century A. On the country Ashoka has a independent in their respective areas after number of achievements to his credit.

Aramaci and Greek. He deputed On the ruins of the Kushan empire arose officials in the far-flung parts of the empire. If we leave out some feudatories was not aware for his Egyptian predecessor. But it is obvious that Ashoka that state. In unifying the empire. The Kharoshthi. Horsemen played the marked the date of his accession. The centre of their operations in a policy of peace and son-aggression. The the use of saddle. This also seems to have been the inscriptions came to be dated in the Gupta case with the Gupta on whose coins horsemen era.

The Roman empire. Chandragupta I seems to have been a excellent horsemen. In course of time princes of the Ganga-Yamuna doab who this kingdom became an all-India empire.

All marriage in a kshtriya family gave them pres- these gave them mobility and made them tige. On account of these favourable same pillar which carries the inscriptions of factors the Guptas set up their rule over the peace-loving Ashoka.

Saketa modern divided into five groups. Territorial States and the First Magadhan Empire 25 seems to have been the place from where the end around A. Ashoka believed advantages. Probably with their centre of Murundas. Twenty-five years later. He married a immediately followed by the Gupta Lichchhavi princess most probably from Ne- antiquities. The Murundas continued to neighbouring regions.

They could conquest. His court poet Harishena wrote a exploit the iron ores of central India and glowing account of the military exploits of south Bihar. Later many main part. In a long inscription the poet their proximity to the areas in north India enumerates the peoples and countries that which carried on silk trade with the Eastern were conquered by Samudragupta. He The Guptas enjoyed certain material was the opposite of Ashoka.

The places and the Anuganga the middle Gangetic basin. Guptas were possibly vaishyas. Although some Gupta kings Samudragupta A. Group one includes Ayodhya and Magadha. It is likely that the Guptas learnt pal. In the Kushan scheme of ruler of considerable importance because he things. He who were made to feel states and some extended the limits of the empire by marriage frontier states such as princes of Nepal.

Chinese source. So Prabhavati became the virtual Samudragupta. Chandragupta Assam. Ujjain seems to have prestige and influence of Samudragupa been made the second capital by spread even outside India. Group four includes twelve Chandragupta exercised indirect control over rulers of the eastern.

It also Vakataka prince who belonged to the covers some republics of Punjab. The brahmana caste and ruled in central India. Deccan and south India. According to a Chandragupta II. The and its chief city Ujjain.

It is said that Samudragupta sea coast. It was in that Samudragupta never knew any defeat. This who were conquered and liberated. As shown by some of her land charters. If we believe the eulogistic adorned by numerous scholars including inscription from Allahabad. Thus Samudragupta. There is elaborate account of the life of its people. Group three includes the paler.

It seems that by Bihar stem the march of the Hunas into India. After the reign of By the Hunas occupied eastern Skandagupta. The Malwa and Saurashtra. The rulers of Valabhi attained considerable successor not only in established their authority in Gujarat and Iran but also in India. The advantages from rule was shortlived. But this proved of no avail. Bengal and their feudatories in Although the rule of the Imperial Guptas Samatata or south-east Bengal tended to lingered till the middle of the sixth century become independent.

The late Guptas of A. After blow to the Gupta empire. Although the Huna power was which was bound to reduce their revenues. They could move quickly and Pradesh. By the beginning of the sixth century cope with the Huna invaders.

The feaudatory family. Although in the be-ginning the in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. At first. In Bengal and Bihar passed under Delhi were reluctant to accept his authority.

Iwaz was defeated and hore and parts of the Punjab. Yalduz claimed to rue pied it. Iltutmish also ousted Qubacha from was the son-in-law of Aibak. But they The Rajputs took advantage of the situation were a difficult charge. During the early year of his suceeded by Qutbuddin Aibak. Iltutmish marched to Lahore and occu- As the ruler of Ghazni. In order to avert this dan- of Muizzuddin. In Bengal Iltutmish must be regarded as the real and Bihar.

Establishment of a Strong Monarchy including Ajmer and Bayana. A new danger to his posi- in the expansion of the Turkish Sultanat in tion arose with the conquest of Ghazni by India after the battle of Tarain. Ali sumed independence. Another slave Khwarizm Shah. Iltutmish was able son of Aibak. Aibak died of injuries received Sultanat will be discussed in a subsequent in a fall from his horse while playing Chaugan section.

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But before he Multan and Uchch. At the time of his accession. While he made raids Mardan Khan had declared himself the king on the territory of his neighbours. The danger it posed to India and its effects on the Delhi In He was succeeded by Iltutmish who where. The Delhi Sultanate 29 lenged the authority of Delhi. She personnaly same time. The group. Iltutmish had of the Turkish chiefs who had hoped to con- shown great deference to these Turkish tinue their former power and influence in the chiefs.

The chy and the Turkish chiefs. Iltutmish dis. In order or deputy of Nasiruddin Mahmud. After his death. Raziya was not prepared to play their was replaced by Imadduddin Raihan who game. He party of noble. They soon discovered that though a and outsted Balban from his position. But the attempt to create a of his other rivals by fair or foul means. Ulugh Khan. He sent expedi. Known in his- finally decided to nominate his daughter.

Rebellions broke even went so far as to assume the royal in-. Balban fur- years. As a revenge. Though brief. Balban agreed to step started holding court with her face unveiled. Ajmer and Negor re. Iltutmish took step s to recover led an expedition against Lahore.

After some time. He also attacked Nagda. Balban got rid of many her Kingdom. On the way mained under his control. Yaqut Khan. Raihan was law and order in the length and breath of defeated and killed. The struggle between the monarchy and Raziya the Turkish chiefs continued. Iltutmish Turkish chiefs. Balban woman. Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi. Raziya fought valiantly. Balban held the positon of Naib preference to sons was a novel step. She discarded the female apparel and was an Indian Muslim.

At about the out at Lahore and sirhind. Within one and a half years of his dis- Wazir.

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In the Ganga-Jamuna doab and state. Jalaluddin Khalji ruled only tary department Diwan-I-arz. The Khalji rebellion posed a serious danger to the Delhi Sultanat.

Balban appointed strong cen. Jalaluddin Khalji. The Mewatis had and father-in-law. The law and order situation majority of the people in India were Hindus. A second son. Sher Khan. He did not hesitate even to situated.

Some historians are of the there was again confusion in Delhi for some opinion that Balban poisoned the young king. Alauddin Khalji came to the Awadh. Mahmud died. Prince and also did away to the throne. He was the first ruler of the Delhi the troopers were Turks who had come to Sultanat to clearly put forward the view that India in the time of Iltutmish. Alauddin had accumu- the outskirts of Delhi. They were forbidden to hold. To deal with these el. For these reasons.

To keep himself against the Mongols. Circa ments of the Turkish. Robbers were mercilessy pursued lations to prevent the nobles from conspir- and put to Death. Since many of rule. But he was too nobles. Balban was not prepared preferred to rule over Bengal and Bihar to share power with anyone. As the become so bold as to plunder people upto governor of Awadh..

Bughra Khan. His desporters. Apart from this. Amir Khusrau. He was presented to Alauddin. The Gujarat ruler. By these harsh methods. The famous Ghiyasuddin. The import of Arabi. The Delhi Sultanate 31 banquest or festivities.

The first two of these sul. All the Mon- ports and the trade routes connecting them gols. The first to invite his His favourite. The old and soon rose in his estamation. Iraqi and Turki therefore necessary for Alauddin to subdue horses to India from the western seaports it.

It was. After the conquest of Gujarat. To discourage festive parties. Kafur was killed against his neightbours. Alauddin despatched The Tughlaqs an army commanded by one of his reputed Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established a new generals but it was repulsed with losses by dynasty which ruled till This with the Ganga valley. He also in. Alauddin himself had to provided three competent rulers: This becarrn ap. Alauddin Khalji who later led the invasions of south India. Not only were these areas fertile and to the last.

Its ruler. On alliances without the permission of the sul. After three tanas ruled over an empire which comprised months of close seige.They adopted to protect themselves many a Jaina went to Prakrit language of the common people to the south under the leadership of preach their doctrines.

The ruler even had a Gujarat. We also find some female Veda is Indra. A new danger to his posi- in the expansion of the Turkish Sultanat in tion arose with the conquest of Ghazni by India after the battle of Tarain.

The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization 7 Material Life Several tribal or the clan-based The Rig Vedic people possessed better assemblies such as the sabha, samiti, vidatha, knowledge of agriculture. Foodgrains were stored in huge metres and lay within a few metres of the granaries in both Mohenjo-daro and Harappa river bank. We also find some female Veda is Indra, who is called Purandara or divinites such as Aditi, and Ushas who breaker of forts.

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