LANGUAGE OF SCHOOL DESIGN PDF
pixia-club.info and the authors hereby grant the holder of this book, limited permission to photocopy selections from this copyrighted publication for nonprofit . Our Company assumes that our competitors' products have the same technology, price, performance and features. Design is the only thing that sets us apart. PDF | The positive impact from changing the environment of a school as a way The design process creates school environments that develop the whole child, A Design Language for Schools and Learning Communities.
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In The Language of School Design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools,. Prakash Nair, Randall Fielding, and Jef- frey Lackney discuss the classroom as a . In the book, The Language of School Design, the authors identify 29 design patterns that are needed in 21st century schools. Presents 25 design patterns, along with plans, sectional views, and photographs that illustrate existing innovative learning environments from.
It was a truth that man was created by God in the image of Adam with his share of original sin and a boy was born sinful. Only the teaching of the church and the sacraments could redeem him. The need was to produce priests, and in a stable kingdom such as that of Charlemagne , administrators with elementary writing skills in Latin and the arithmetic needed to collect taxes and administer them.
Alcuin developed teaching material that were based on the catechetical method - repeating and memorizing questions and answers, though often not understanding. These skills were also needed in the great abbeys such as Cluny. There was a divergence between the needs of town and monasteries and we see the development of parish, chantry, monastic and cathedral schools. With the entry of women into church life, convents were established and with them convent schools.
Girls entered here at the age of eight and were taught Latin grammar, religious doctrine and music, and the womens arts of spinning, weaving, tapestry, painting and embroidery. Chantry schools were the result of a charitable donations and educated the poor. Parishes had to have a school from , and cathedrals had to establish schools after the Lateran Council of Elementary education was mainly to teach the Latin needed for the trivium and the quadrivium that formed the basis of the secondary curriculum.
Whole School Issues Successful architecture deals with a building as a whole, rather than the simple sum of its parts. Hence, to design for an issue with sensitivities as particular as autism, one must first look at the elements dealing with the building as a whole. As a result of the application of the ASPECTSS principles, the following design guidelines were developed with respect to context and community, zoning, circulation and fire safety.
Context and Community One of the more important problems of special needs children that have recently come to the forefront of research and literature is the issue of inclusion and respect in society. Through design it may be possible to assist such inclusion. The provision of community-linked services is essential to this end.
Facilities such as the commercial outlets proposed create an opportunity for student interaction with society. This helps develop social and vocational skills in the students as well as promote a positive productive image of autism to the community at large.
Storage areas, display areas, workspaces and customer areas are kept visually and spatially separate and organized.
Natural lighting is used as much as possible, as well as natural ventilation. The functions that are provided in the assembly hall can also be utilized to encourage inclusion. These functions may include, but are not necessarily exclusive to: Zoning When designing for a group of students with the sensory challenges found predominantly in those with autism, the organization of functions with respect to one another is of great importance.
This functional organization, or zoning, has great impact on the comfort of the user, the conducive quality of the healing and learning environment, as well as the independence enjoyed by these students as they navigate the center. Entry-level plan and Sensory Zoning Source: With this in mind, when designing for autism, buildings may be designed with a new outlook. Services, which are usually high-stimulus, including bathrooms, kitchens, staff-rooms and administration, should be separated from the student areas.
As will be discussed shortly, transition zones also play a role in easing such shifts. Way-finding, Navigation, Circulation and Spatial Sequencing The importance of this issue cannot be over-emphasized. When coupled with sensory zoning, the issue of conducive way finding and navigation may greatly aid the special needs user in gaining various skills and independence while freeing staff and faculty.
Without such an approach to design, faculty and staff become responsible for guiding children throughout their day as they move from one activity to another.
This is not only time-consuming but robs the child of skill- development opportunities. However an attempt to group functions for each age group in zones through which the children move progressively throughout the day is employed. Transition zones such as gardens and sensory curriculum rooms may assist when this one-way circulation is not possible.
The use of a circular node or junction, in the form of a cylindrical tower, between the two main circulation axes, should create such a transition zone between the two sensory zones. It is suggested, as well, that this space, being visually and spatially distinguishable from the remainder of the forms used in the project, will aid the student in independent navigation by creating a visual cue to the change in sensory zone, hopefully preparing him for the shift in the sensory environment and quality of activity about to take place.
Visual aids such as color and pattern are employed in circulation areas to assist way finding. This is done discreetly to avoid visual over-stimulation. Signage is another important part of way finding and navigation. Conventionally dependent primarily upon the written word, signage is a challenge for communication-disordered individuals like those with autism. It has been found that individuals with autism, although sometimes unable to communicate with conventional language of the spoken and written word, can communicate well using pictures Grandin, This concept can be applied to signage schemes where pictorial language can be displayed in parallel with written language.
In addition to assisting navigation, this will help develop skills as well as raise self-esteem and encourage inclusion. When continuously viewing and understanding a pictorial sign with written words next to each symbol, eventually some written words may begin to be understood by association.
The New Zealand Curriculum
Using these types of signs will also allow all children to be included in the group of those who can read. Various colors and themed symbols are used to indicate different functions in the school.
In a manner similar to pictorial signage, textural signage is proposed as a communicative tool capitalizing on the tactile, in addition to the visual, cognitive capabilities of the students.
Various textured materials are also used to indicate circulation areas, changes in levels and for the creation of interesting sensory experiences, particularly in outdoor learning environments. The lighting used in all circulation spaces is natural with placement that avoids glare and silhouetting. This issue is important not only for those with visual issues but also for those with auditory processing problems and challenges.
Such individuals commonly depend on visual cues such as body language and facial expression to assess situations and silhouetting impairs this. The use of contrasting materials in various elements-floor, wall, ceiling, doors- helps visually define and differentiate, helping to clarify the visual qualities of circulation areas. Over- stimulation, however, is avoided. Fire safety and evacuation Traditionally the issue of fire safety and evacuation has focused on wheelchair users and non- ambulant individuals.
The same concepts, however, can be applied to autistic users. The evacuation strategy proposed involves insuring the safe and effective movement of the challenged individual from any point in the building under various fire location scenarios progressive horizontal evacuation , to a safe spot or refuge. This refuge should be secure and located away from the evacuation flow.
Learning Spaces: General Classroom Design A clustered organization is used in designing the classrooms. This introverted organization creates an internal, contained, open-air space that can fulfill various functions. The first is the creation of a space of an intimate scale allowing students with delayed social interaction skills the chance to interact with smaller groups of children in a familiar environment. The second is the environmental benefits of courtyard design such as temperature regulation Reynolds, J.
As a zone the classrooms are located in the low-stimulus area of the school. The classrooms themselves are designed acoustically to reduce external noise permeation as well as internal echoes.
With a concept similar to that of sensory zoning, the classroom is designed in a compartmentalized fashion. These stations are organized throughout the classroom according to their sensory requirements with high focus functions like fine motor skills, matching, sorting and academics located in well-lit areas allowing alertness without distraction.
Natural lighting is introduced with above eye-level sills to allow indirect sunlight in without visual distractions. Optimally these windows are north facing to avoid glare and direct light. For each activity an optimum and distinct furniture and equipment layout is used consistently. It has been found that some activities are best performed with certain layouts Mostafa, Open areas for floor play are also included as well as provisions for group work.
Resources are to be organized so that they are readily available without being highly visually accessible to avoid distraction to the child. Closed storage cupboards or open shelving with neutral boxes are ideal. These resource nodes can be placed centrally between two or more classes in a small teacher preparation area to be more efficient. This is located in the lowest stimulus area of the classroom. Essentially it is a small partitioned area where a child may seek refuge whenever over-stimulated or overwhelmed.
This space is intimate and partially enclosed to limit the sensory environment the child needs to deal with.
These items may include cushions of various textures, brushes, sand paper, small tents, blankets, fiber optic lights, music headphones and perhaps aromatherapy oils.
Anecdotal evidence shows that the mere presence, and not necessarily regular use, of this space in a classroom is sufficient to reduce the tantrums and outbursts of over-sensitive children, increasing their productivity in class Mostafa, This area can also be used at the beginning and end of classes to help children calm down and prepare to be more receptive to the upcoming tasks.
Being a comprehensive center, the role of the classroom, though primarily instructional, also includes elements of training for both parents and other teachers or specialists.
For this purpose, joint observation rooms are made available directly adjacent to the classrooms. These can be used as part of teacher training courses as well as parent awareness and home program training.
Specialized Therapy Spaces The center provides various specialized spaces for speech, occupational, psychomotor therapy etc. All these spaces, with the exception of speech therapy, are considered the high stimulus functions and should be grouped accordingly in that sensory zone. Each function, however is kept acoustically separated from the others using high quality wall systems.
Lighting, whenever possible, is natural and indirect, from a source above eye-level to avoid visual distraction.
Fluorescent lighting, which emits a low hum and flickers, is avoided. Shared resource and preparation areas, as well as observation rooms are also provided. For example the psychomotor therapy room is designed in a more linear proportion allowing directional movement along its length.
The therapist can prepare and organize the necessary equipment on these shelves from the adjacent resource and equipment storage area, allowing independent and structured access to the students without over-stimulation and distraction. These resource areas are located between, and accessible from, two adjacent therapy rooms.
This will economize on space and expensive equipment that can be shared. The occupational and physical therapy rooms are organized in a similar fashion. The art therapy area incorporates various activities including painting, printing, sculpture and pottery, which is located on an outdoor terrace.
As in the classrooms these different activities are organized in stations kept partially visually and spatially separate. Natural lighting is achieved through a skylight, creating an enjoyable and creative environment. Located above the pre- vocational workshop, artwork can be integrated to help students create beautiful and functional objects such as simple furniture, leather goods and home accessories. A large storage and preparation area are made available.
The pre-vocational workshops are located on the ground floor with direct access to an outdoor area for large-scale activities such as carpentry and metal work, as well as formal gardening.
The activities in the workshops are divided into two groups including but not limited to woodwork, bamboo, candle making, tapestry and computers.
The workshops are furnished with adjustable stools and tables with durable surfaces throughout. Both the workshops and art studio are located close to the outlets to allow easy transportation of products and goods with minimal distraction to the rest of the center. The enclosed swimming pool and hydrotherapy are located at the farthest possible location from the classrooms and the low-stimulus zone. Being a high-stimulus function, this essential activity needs to be housed in an enclosure that minimizes acoustical disturbances such as echoes, whilst being safe and hygienic.
The hydrotherapy is comprised of a sensory pool that activates various jets at different parts of the body to provide tactile stimulation. External access for extra-curricular use is provided. The speech therapy rooms, being high-focus activities requiring a low-stimulatory environment, should be located as part of the low-stimulus zone.
Research has shown the preliminary success and long-term sustainability of performance of speech and communication in soundproofed speech therapy rooms Mostafa, In this design a group of rooms with various levels of soundproofing are made available.
High Quality Teaching
In this way the child can graduate from one level of acoustical control to the other as he or she acquires the necessary skills with the ultimate objective of generalizing communication skills in a non- controlled environment. Outdoor Learning Spaces As mentioned previously, outdoor spaces can play an essential role in learning Millet, These values are to be encouraged and modelled, and they are to be explored by students.
Schools need to consider how they can make the values an integral part of their curriculum and how they will monitor the effectiveness of the approach taken. Key competencies The key competencies are both end and means.
They are a focus for learning — and they enable learning. They are the capabilities that young people need for growing, working, and participating in their communities and society.
The school curriculum should challenge students to use and develop the competencies across the range of learning areas and in increasingly complex and unfamiliar situations. Opportunities for doing this can often be integrated into existing programmes of work. Use can also be made of opportunities provided by the ways in which school environments and events are structured. There will be times when students can initiate activities themselves.
Such activities provide meaningful contexts for learning and self-assessment. In practice, the key competencies are most often used in combination. When designing and reviewing their curriculum, schools will need to consider how to encourage and monitor the development of the key competencies.
They will need to clarify their meaning for their students. They will also need to clarify the conditions that will help or hinder the development of the competencies, the extent to which they are being demonstrated, and how the school will evaluate the effectiveness of approaches intended to strengthen them. With appropriate teacher guidance and feedback, all students should develop strategies for self-monitoring and collaborative evaluation of their performance in relation to suitable criteria.
Self-assessments might involve students examining and discussing various kinds of evidence, making judgments about their progress, and setting further goals.
Current average class size: 7
Schools are then able to select achievement objectives to fit those programmes. None of the strands in the required learning areas is optional, but in some learning areas, particular strands may be emphasised at different times or in different years. Schools should have a clear rationale for doing this and should ensure that each strand receives due emphasis over the longer term.
Links between learning areas should be explored. Future-focused issues are a rich source of learning opportunities.
These desirable levels of knowledge, understanding, and skills represent progress towards broader outcomes that ultimately amount to deeper learning. When designing and reviewing their curriculum, schools choose achievement objectives from each area to fit the learning needs of their students. Some achievement objectives relate to skills or understandings that can be mastered within a particular learning level.
Others are more complex and are developed with increasing sophistication across a number of learning levels. It is important for both planning and teaching purposes that schools provide clear statements of learning expectations that apply to particular levels or across a number of levels. These expectations should be stated in ways that help teachers, students, and parents to recognise, measure, discuss, and chart progress.
With this in mind, schools need to consider how they will gather, analyse, and use assessment information so that it is effective in meeting this purpose.The values, competencies, knowledge, and skills that students will need for addressing real-life situations are rarely confined to one part of the curriculum.
They are a focus for learning — and they enable learning. In this design a group of rooms with various levels of soundproofing are made available.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 3: As mentioned previously, a preliminary exploratory survey of parents and primary caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD ranked acoustics as the most influential feature of the sensory environment upon autistic behavior. No age limit was specified. Alcuin developed teaching material that were based on the catechetical method - repeating and memorizing questions and answers, though often not understanding.
Support Spaces: The first is the creation of a space of an intimate scale allowing students with delayed social interaction skills the chance to interact with smaller groups of children in a familiar environment.
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