HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY TEXTBOOK PDF
Health Psychology a textbook Fourth Edition BESTSELLER New Features: • New chapter on women's health issues, exploring recent research into pregnancy. Middlesex University where she set up a health psychology course. Jane is a Reader in A catalogue record of this book is available from the British Library. Figures. The biopsychosocial model of health and illness. 4. Psychology and health: direct and indirect pathways. 5. Decline in mortality from.
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PDF | During its short history, Health Psychology has made substantial progress in In book: International Handbook of Psychology, Edition: 1, Chapter: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Walker, Jearl. Fundamentals of physics / Jearl Walker, David Hallid. Health Psychology: A textbook 3rd edition. Open University Press. McGraw-Hill Education. McGraw-Hill House. Shoppenhangers Road. Maidenhead. Berkshire.
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Learn more. Volume 33 , Issue 5. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. The community often serves as the level of analysis, and is frequently sought as a partner in health-related interventions.
Critical health psychology CrHP CrHP is concerned with the distribution of power and the impact of power differentials on health experience and behavior, health care systems, and health policy. CrHP prioritizes social justice and the universal right to health for people of all races, genders, ages, and socioeconomic positions.
A major concern is health inequalities. The critical health psychologist is an agent of change, not simply an analyst or cataloger. Health psychology, like other areas of applied psychology, is both a theoretical and applied field. Health psychologists employ diverse research methods. These methods include controlled randomized experiments , quasi-experiments , longitudinal studies , time-series designs, cross-sectional studies , case-control studies, qualitative research as well as action research.
Health psychologists study a broad range of health phenomena including cardiovascular disease , cardiac psychology , smoking habits, the relation of religious beliefs to health, alcohol use, social support, living conditions, emotional state, social class, and more.
Some health psychologists treat individuals with sleep problems, headaches, alcohol problems, etc. Other health psychologists work to empower community members by helping community members gain control over their health and improve quality of life of entire communities.
Origins and development[ edit ] Psychological factors in health had been studied since the early 20th century by disciplines such as psychosomatic medicine and later behavioral medicine , but these were primarily branches of medicine, not psychology. Health psychology began to emerge as a distinct discipline of psychology in the United States in the s. In the midth century there was a growing understanding in medicine of the effect of behavior on health.
For example, the Alameda County Study , which began in the s, showed that people who ate regular meals e.
Medical psychology, however, was a relatively small field, primarily aimed at helping patients adjust to illness. One of the few psychologists working in this area at the time, Schofield proposed new forms of education and training for future psychologists. The APA, responding to his proposal, in established a task force to consider how psychologists could a help people to manage their health-related behaviors, b help patients manage their physical health problems, and c train healthcare staff to work more effectively with patients.
At the first divisional conference, Matarazzo delivered a speech that played an important role in defining health psychology.
He defined the new field in this way, "Health psychology is the aggregate of the specific educational, scientific and professional contributions of the discipline of psychology to the promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, the identification of diagnostic and etiologic correlates of health, illness and related dysfunction, and the analysis and improvement of the healthcare system and health policy formation.
The European Health Psychology Society was also established in Similar organizations were established in other countries, including Australia and Japan.
In the US, post-doctoral level health psychology training programs were established for individuals who completed a doctoral degree in clinical psychology. A number of relevant trends coincided with the emergence of health psychology, including: Epidemiological evidence linking behavior and health. The awarding of divisional status meant that the individual training needs and professional practice of health psychologists were recognized, and members were able to obtain chartered status with the BPS.
Health Psychology: A Textbook, 4th edition
The BPS went on to regulate training and practice in health psychology until the regulation of professional standards and qualifications was taken over by statutory registration with the Health Professions Council in They also recommend ways to improve health care policy. They have also studied the association between illness and individual characteristics. Physical addiction impedes smoking cessation. Some research suggests that seductive advertising also contributes to psychological dependency on tobacco,  although other research has found no relationship between media exposure and smoking in youth.
Health psychologists employ cognitive behavioral therapy and applied behavior analysis also see behavior modification for that purpose. Preventing illness[ edit ] Health psychologists promote health through behavioral change, as mentioned above; however, they attempt to prevent illness in other ways as well. Health psychologists try to help people to lead a healthy life by developing and running programmes which can help people to make changes in their lives such as stopping smoking, reducing the amount of alcohol they consume, eating more healthily, and exercising regularly.
Those least able to afford tobacco products consume them most. Tobacco provides individuals with a way of controlling aversive emotional states accompanying daily experiences of stress that characterize the lives of deprived and vulnerable individuals.
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Moreover, many individuals are often unable to apply their knowledge of health practices owing to everyday pressures and stresses. A common example of population-based attempts to motivate the smoking public to reduce its dependence on cigarettes is anti-smoking campaigns. Health psychologists have worked to understand why some people do not seek early screenings or immunizations, and have used that knowledge to develop ways to encourage people to have early health checks for illnesses such as cancer and heart disease.
For example, Kompier and his colleagues  have shown that a number of interventions aimed at reducing stress in bus drivers has had beneficial effects for employees and bus companies. The effects of disease[ edit ] Health psychologists investigate how disease affects individuals' psychological well-being.
An individual who becomes seriously ill or injured faces many different practical stressors. These stressors include problems meeting medical and other bills, problems obtaining proper care when home from the hospital, obstacles to caring for dependents, the experience of having one's sense of self-reliance compromised, gaining a new, unwanted identity as that of a sick person, and so on.Some health psychologists treat individuals with sleep problems, headaches, alcohol problems, etc.
Tobacco provides individuals with a way of controlling aversive emotional states accompanying daily experiences of stress that characterize the lives of deprived and vulnerable individuals. Investigation of psychological alternatives to medical methods of dealing with, for example, chronic pain and sleep disorders, makes even clearer what most of us prefer to ignore: health problems produce a terrible, frightening loss of human dignity and years of productive living.
Several classes detail methods which psychological researchers and care providers have developed and used to help people: a seek professional services before a health problem becomes critical, b not use health services they do not need, c follow the advice of physicians and other health service providers, to minimize more serious and expensive medical services, and d prepare for, cope with, and adjust to the results of medical interventions such as surgery.
In some countries, a clinical health psychologist, with additional training, can become a medical psychologist and, thereby, obtain prescription privileges.
Health psychology—a textbook
Read the full text. Failing to take prescribed medication is costly and wastes millions of usable medicines that could otherwise help other people. The research described throughout this course acknowledges this uncertainty while showing how we can quantify it and reduce it through repeated cycles of investigation, theorization, and practice.
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