FIRST WORLD WAR IN HINDI PDF
4º ESO - First World War. The First World War (). Introduction. The photos of the summer of now stun the observer. Young people across Europe. First World War home page, Maps. Europe, Middle East and North Africa. Europe Europe · The Ottoman Empire · The Eastern Front. World War I also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July to 11 November
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Hindi language recruiting poster from India dating from the First World War .. West Indian Service Personnel (pixia-club.info). Learn the causes and consequences of First World War (). Presented in simple First World War (World War I) is considered as one of the largest wars in history. The world's great second world war. Print Friendly, PDF & Email. The other major pre-war alliance was the Triple Entente, a pact between Russia, Great Britain, and France (called the Allied Powers during the.
This debate has now lasted over a century, with each consensus proving fragile and short-lived. The multiplicity of actors, the vast range of sources, and competing methodological approaches to international politics ensure the constant renewal of the subject. From the outset, political interests and contemporary affairs have shaped scholarly perspectives.
There has been an intensive exchange of research, arguments, and polemics across national borders.
The Impact of the First World War and Its Implications for Europe Today
The debate about the origins of the war has reflected, but also informed, changing historiographical fashions. Mobilising domestic support for a major war required that the conflict be justified as a defensive reaction to foreign aggression.
Although sovereign states retained the right to wage war when they wished, in practice there was a narrow band of justifications for war, ruling out the most egregious kinds of aggression. Countenancing the possibility of war, leaders cast their moves as defensive. The Russian mobilisation on 30 July allowed German leaders to rally different strands of popular opinion, particularly the socialist and trade union movement, to a war of defence against Tsarist autocracy.
The debate about responsibility was infused with moral claims from the outset, as each side attributed to their enemies the responsibility for violating norms of international politics by waging aggressive war. Without access to the diplomatic documents, scholars interpreted the origins of the war in the context of allegedly long-standing cultural and social differences. Debates about the conduct of war, particularly the early reports of atrocities , and war aims became intertwined with arguments about the responsibility for war.
Werner Sombart explained that all wars resulted from opposing beliefs.
First World War (1914-1918): Causes and Consequences
Information flowed relatively easily across the lines. Writers could get hold of pamphlets written by enemy citizens. Speeches of enemy leaders were reprinted in newspapers — if only to serve as a foil for immediate rebuttal of the claims to moral superiority and political moderation.
Debates between the belligerents about the origins of the war also took place in neutral spaces, particularly in the United States until its entry into the war in Delegations of academics toured neutral states.
On occasion, the press in neutral states published important material. In , the Swedish paper Politiken published documents written by the former German ambassador to London, Prince Max von Lichnowsky and designed for a small circle amongst the German elite.
Allied authors happily seized upon these documents to buttress their arguments that German leaders had pursued a reckless course during the July crisis.
World War I
Although the to-and-fro between belligerent politicians and scholars about responsibility dominated debate, other academic and political communities contributed novel perspectives. Edmund Dene Morel and the Union of Democratic Control argued that secret diplomacy was the fundamental cause of the war — and in making this argument they staked their claims for future parliamentary control of foreign policy.
In retrospect, the most important contributions to these debates came from Vladimir Lenin , Bolsheviks, and other socialist opponents of the war. In September , socialist opponents of the war from around Europe gathered at the Swiss town of Zimmerwald.
He drew on pre-war criticisms of imperialism and the corrupting relationship between capitalism and the state by the British author, J. Hobson , amongst others. Viewing the war as a clash of capitalist imperialist states had obvious political attractions for socialist revolutionaries.
It challenged the arguments of socialist supporters of the war that it was waged in defence of the nation. By linking the origins of the war to the suffering of millions, it legitimised Bolshevik demands for dramatic social and political reform.
After the Bolsheviks came to power in , they never sought to defend the record of Tsarist foreign policy and published volumes of incriminating primary sources. Article of the Treaty of Versailles stated: The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage, to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
The article was inserted by the American delegation, with John Foster Dulles , the future secretary of state, playing a central role in its drafting. The American concept sought to place claims for reparations on a legal basis, rather than the right of victory. Article therefore underpinned key features of the treaty and the wider political design of the post-war order, including reparations and international law.
This made the article an obvious target for German attacks. He changed the meaning of the article from one of legal and political responsibility to one of moral and national honour. He completed the process of fusing moral and political categories, evident in the earliest debates about the origins of the war. This fusion and the high political stakes made historical research into the origins of the war fraught in the s.
Historical research in the former belligerent societies served political agendas. Historians were often willing participants in this highly politicised debate about the origins of the war. They gained prestige and funding from their association with major national causes. As importantly, historians often shared the broad views of their respective foreign ministries.
And even those who were sceptical of emerging national narratives about the origins of the war still relied heavily upon sources published under the aegis of the foreign ministries. Publishing massive collections of documents became a central feature of interwar research and debate.
A three-man team edited the collection. The series started in the s following the Franco-Prussian War and the volumes became denser as they entered the 20th century.
A concern to downplay German acts of aggression influenced the selection and editing of documents.
Other states followed suit. Political concerns were at the fore. Pierre de Margerie , the French ambassador to Berlin, warned Prime Minister Aristide Briand in — in the era of Franco-German rapprochement — that France would lose the contest for world opinion unless it followed suit. As in Die Grosse Politik the selection of documents reflected political imperatives.
The lead editor was M. He joined the Bolshevik party after the revolution and played an influential role in developing education policy. The documents were translated into German — but not into English or French — under the guidance of Otto Hoetzsch , a leading German expert on Russian politics. Financed by a German loan, four Austrian historians edited eight volumes of Austro-Hungarian diplomatic documents. The volume of documents in these collections overwhelmed other sources produced in the interwar period.
Archives and personal collections of papers were generally inaccessible — or else made public through the publication of memoirs. These publications therefore had considerable weight in shaping the debate over the origins of the war.
First, the choice of German and French historians and officials to start the series in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian war pushed the search for the origins back from the immediate context of the July crisis and the years immediately preceding the war.
This gave rise to a narrative that emphasised the flaws of the international order, rendering war a likely outcome of decades of great power rivalries. Second, the study of the origins of the war became the study of diplomatic history. Without access to significant materials from other ministries or personal papers, historians generally worked on the assumption that the key decisions were made in the foreign ministries.
This downplayed the role of military and economic groups in making foreign policy. Sources for public opinion were available — in Malcolm Carroll published his important study of French public opinion and foreign policy — but these were under-utilised.
Third, the publication of so many volumes ensured that historians often had access to several accounts of the one event or discussion. By the late s, historians were busily digesting the mass of documents. Integrate Learning With Test-Taking! Related Posts: Second World War Disintegration of the USSR Comments Thank u. Nice and precise.
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U should defined it little more …. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, and the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July , the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente —consisting of France , Russia and Britain —and the Triple Alliance of Germany , Austria-Hungary and Italy the Triple Alliance was primarily defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war in In November , the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus , Mesopotamia and the Sinai Peninsula.
The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe. The Entente and its allies would eventually become known as the Allied Powers , while the grouping of Austria-Hungary, Germany and their allies would become known as the Central Powers.
The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of , the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition , marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until the Eastern Front , by contrast, was marked by much greater exchanges of territory.It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet , worn by British Imperial and US troops, and in by the distinctive German Stahlhelm , a design, with improvements, still in use today.
The American concept sought to place claims for reparations on a legal basis, rather than the right of victory.
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A Europe dominated by populists and nationalists has never brought a more peaceful or prosperous Europe. Thank you Its a very nice answer Thus I can get full marks So i am thankful to you.
The Kaiser went into exile, and Germany plunged into economic and political chaos that paved the way for the rise of Hitler. The army has been described as being "run on colonial lines" and the Slav soldiers as "disaffected".
It was not until the middle of September that the integrated force was ready for large-scale operations. Or will it drift back into a system of nation states adopting beggar thy neighbour policies?
Article of the Treaty of Versailles stated: The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage, to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies. Stolen Years:
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