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ON THE EDITIONS OF The Will to Power. CHRONOLOGY OF NIETZSCHE's WORKS. FACSIMILES from Nietzsche's manuscript. NIETZSCHE'S PREFACE. The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Will to Power, Book III and IV, by Friedrich Nietzsche This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and . Project Gutenberg's The Will to Power, Book I and II, by Friedrich Nietzsche This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other.

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THE WILL TO POWER (Nov.!7-March 11 CONTENTS: BOOK I - EUROPEAN NIHILISM BOOK II - CRITIQUE OF HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO BOOK III. Assembled by Nietzsche's sister after his death, The Will to Power is a collection of the philosopher's reflections and theories taken from his. FRIEDRICH N I ETZSCHE Translated by Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale Edited by Walter Kaufmann A VINTAGE GIANT THE WILL TO POWER P»-.

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I consider life itself instinct for growth, for continuance, for accumulation of forces, for power: where the will to power is lacking there is 14 This collection of letters, aphoristic writings and other prose pieces was posthumously collected, edited, and published by his sister Elizabeth Forster Nietzsche under the title, The Will to Power.

However since the publication of the new critical Colli and Montinari edition of his works, scholars have discovered that Nietzsche never intended to publish what two generations of commentators regarded as the major centerpiece of his philosophy The Will to Power.

What is more, of those entries that his sister selected for publication, Nietzsche had given over two-thirds to a friend for disposal. Among these discarded entries is the famous , which outlines his attempt to make the will to power into the fundamental principle of all being. His published writings, however, limit the will to power to an animating principle of living things, and focus particularly on human individual and societal expressions of this power.

My assertion is that this will is lacking in all the supreme values of mankind — that values of decline, nihilistic values, hold sway under the holiest names. First, his association between humanity and other animals through common traits of instinct and capacity for self-preservation, suggests a naturalistic view of humanity.

The animal comparison reveals that Nietzsche holds an anthropology of man as instinctual animal, though his own development of this point may indicate otherwise. And this secret Life spake herself unto me.

To be sure, ye call it will to procreation, or impulse towards a goal, towards the higher, remoter, more manifold: but all that is one and the same secret.

Hollingdale, trans. London; New York: Penguin Books, Henceforth we will cite this work as Z, followed by I-IV indic. London; New York: Penguin Books, , However, against Kee, in Part Two we will suggest that Nietzsche may have been unaware of the full implications of this criterion.

The paradox is intractable. Saying Yes to life even in its strangest and hardest problems; the will to life rejoicing over its own inexhaustibility that is what I called Dionysian…in order to be oneself the eternal joy of becoming, beyond all terror and pity—that joy which includes even destroying I again plant myself in the soil out of which I draw all that I will and can — I, the last disciple of the philosopher Dionysos—I, the teacher of the eternal recurrence.

For what is not, cannot will; that, however, which is in existence—how could it still strive for existence! Only where there is life, is there also will: not, however, Will to Life, but—so teach I thee—Will to Power! For Nietzsche, this is a necessary corollary of cutting out any appeal to transcendent categories.

In the process, he brilliantly castigates the embodiment of all that is wrong with humanity, the dominant value-system which personifies what is, in his view, a full-fledged embrace of nihilism. Unless otherwise noted, emphasis is always original, as it is here. If Christianity is Platonism for the masses, scientific objectivity is Platonism for the enlightened elites of modernity. For further study on the difference between these two, see Bernard N.

Here we cite more fully what was previously touched upon: Wherever I found a living thing, there I found Will to Power; and even in the will of the servant I found the will to be a master Verily, I say unto you: good and evil which would be everlasting—it doth not exist!

Of its own accord must it ever surpass itself anew. With your values and formulae of good and evil, ye 35 The clearest summary of this whole exchange is in BGE, Yet unlike Feuerbach, Nietzsche argues that beneath it all is the pulse of life as will to power.

Thus when it comes to making his own value judgments of morality, Nietzsche launches into an attack against the dominant morality of his time. Stand all evaluations on their head—that is what they had to do! To this 40 BGE, These questions are substantial enough to take each in turn.

Sellner, and Robert M. Helm, eds. Many interpreters mistakenly say that he does not. Anti-natural morality, that is virtually every morality that has hitherto been taught Overcome thyself!

I do not like any of the negative virtues whose essence is negation and self-renunciation. While Nietzsche does embrace these things, he embraces them only as they are, in his view, the inevitable stuff that arises from life as will to power.

With that proviso in hand, we may even recognize the character and place which Nietzsche provides for beneficence, pity and self-giving. Contrary to constructs of traditional morality, for the Ubermensch, these things do not spring from or issue in self-diminishment, but are always linked to an overflowing abundance of power. Indeed it belongs to the very nature of will to power to be ever creative, self-surpassing and overflowing.

Ye constrain all things to flow towards you and into you, so that they shall flow back again out of your fountain as the gifts of your love. Rather, it is the Ubermensch himself, in his own self-sufficient will to power beyond good and evil, who decides and defines his own virtuous acts.

Here we speak of, as we have all along, the full embrace of life as it is, as will to power, without appeal to any reality outside or above life itself.

Will to Power

This means a denial of linear, but affirmation of circular eternity. In other words, Nietzsche posits a universe of finite energy and matter, but infinite time, such that sooner or later all possible configurations of existence will be exhausted, and the process will repeat itself again. The Ubermensch is the man who looks at his own life and wholeheartedly loves it, and wishes for its infinite repetition.

Cited in Wolf, Thus, against his despairing misanthrope mentor Schopenhauer, Nietzsche envisions his answer to the nihilism of both a dead God and Christianity: …the ideal of the most exuberant, most living and most world-affirming man, who has not only learned to get on and treat with all that was and is but who wants to have it again as it was and is to all eternity, insatiably calling out de capo not only to himself but to the whole piece and play, and not only to a play but fundamentally to him who needs precisely this play -- and who makes it necessary: because be needs himself again and again — and makes himself necessary — What?

And would this not be — circulus vitiosus deus?

Nietzsche's Concept of the Will to Power

The Dionysian Dawn We come back to the place where we started. Nonetheless, Nietzsche does have a constructive vision, which we hope to have demonstrated here. Willing liberates; but what is it that puts this liberator in fetters?

Powerless against what has been done, it is an angry spectator of all that is past. Cited in Kee, We will return to this in a moment. Helmut Thielicke argues that the result here is no mere reconfiguration of the connection between anthropology and ethics, but rather its erasure in evolutionary terms. Knowledge is a tool of force, and truth for its own sake is an empty phrase. The same applies to the good and the beautiful. Whether one wants to become tyrant or seducer or shepherd or herd animal?

Spring-Fall What has been ruined by the church's misuse of it: 1. Our absurd pedagogic world, before which the "useful civil servant" hovers as a model, thinks it can get by with "instruction," with brain drill; it has not the slightest idea that something else is needed first--education of will power; one devises tests for everything except for the main thing: whether one can will, whether one may promise; the young man finishes school without a single question, without any curiosity even, concerning this supreme value-problem of his nature; 2.

Feasts include: pride, exuberance, wantonness; mockery of everything serious and Philistine; a divine affirmation of oneself out of animal plenitude and perfection--one and all states which the Christian cannot honestly welcome.

The feast is paganism par excellence; 5. So to live that one can also will at the right time to die! The Noble Man Summer-Fall The meaning of our gardens and palaces and to this extent also the meaning of all desire for riches is to remove disorder and vulgarity from sight and to build a home for nobility of soul. The majority, to be sure, believe they will acquire higher natures when, those beautiful, peaceful objects have operated upon them: hence the rush to go to Italy and on travels, etc.

They want to have themselves formed--that is the meaning of their cultural activity! But the strong, the mighty want to form and no longer to have anything foreign about them! Thus men also plunge into wild nature, not to find themselves but to lose and forget themselves in it.

I am not speaking here of the little word "von" or of the Almanach de Gotha [Genealogy reference book of the royal families of Europe. When one speaks of "aristocrats of the spirit," reasons are usually not lacking for concealing something; as is well known, it is a favorite term among ambitious Jews. For spirit alone does not make noble; rather, there must be something to ennoble the spirit.

The Masters of the Earth I write for a species of man that does not yet exist: for the "masters of the earth. In Plato's Theages it is written: "Each one of us would like to be master over all men, if possible, and best of all God. Englishmen, Americans, and Russians--— From now on there will be more favorable preconditions for more comprehensive forms of dominion, whose like has never yet existed.

And even this is not the most important thing; the possibility has been established for the production of international racial unions whose task will be to rear a master race, the future "masters of the earth";--a new, tremendous aristocracy, based on the severest self-legislation, in which the will of philosophical men of power and artist-tyrants will be made to endure for millennia--a higher kind of man who, thanks to their superiority in will, knowledge, riches, and influence, employ democratic Europe as their most pliant and supple instrument for getting hold of the destinies of the earth, so as to work as artists upon "man" himself.

Enough: the time is coming when politics will have a different meaning. The Great Human Being In contrast to the animals, man has cultivated an abundance of contrary drives and impulses within himself: thanks to this synthesis, he is master of the earth.

Thus a drive as master, its opposite weakened, refined, as the impulse that provides the stimulus for the activity of the chief drive. The highest man would have the greatest multiplicity of drives, in the relatively greatest strength that can be endured. Indeed, where the plant "man" shows himself strongest one finds instincts that conflict powerfully e. The Highest Man as Legislator of the Future Spring-Fall Not to make men "better," not to preach morality to them in any form, as if "morality in itself," or any ideal kind of man, were given; but to create conditions that require stronger men who for their part need, and consequently will have, a morality more clearly: a physical-spiritual discipline that makes them strong!

Not to allow oneself to be misled by blue eyes or heaving bosoms: greatness of soul has nothing romantic about it. And unfortunately nothing at all amiable.

For it involves independence; but in the absence of spiritual greatness, independence ought not to be allowed, it causes mischief, even through its desire to do good and practice "justice. Dionysus Jan. He enjoys the taste of what is wholesome for him; his pleasure in anything ceases when the bounds of the wholesome are crossed; he divines the remedies for partial injuries; he has illnesses as great stimulants of his life; he knows how to exploit ill chances; he grows stronger through the accidents that threaten to destroy him; he instinctively gathers from all that he sees, hears, experiences, what advances his main concern--he follows a principle of selection--he allows much to fall through; he reacts with the slowness bred by a long caution and a deliberate pride--he tests a stimulus for its origin and its intentions, he does not submit; he is always in his own company, whether he deals with books, men, or landscapes; he honors by choosing, by admitting, by trusting.

All the spontaneous--new, future, stronger--movements must be there; but they still appear under false names and valuations and have not yet become conscious of themselves. A courageous becoming-conscious and affirmation of what has been achieved--a liberation from the slovenly routine of old valuations that dishonor us in the best and strongest things we have achieved.

What one has not had the courage for is to call this "man in himself" good and to see in him the guarantee of the future. But the key to culture is not to be found in this way: and in praxis one retains the falsification of history in favor of the "good man" as if he alone constituted the progress of man and the socialist ideal i. The struggle against the eighteenth century: its supreme overcoming by Goethe and Napoleon. Schopenhauer, too, struggles against it; but he involuntarily steps back into the seventeenth century--he is a modern Pascal, with Pascalian value judgments without Christianity.

Schopenhauer was not strong enough for a new Yes. Napoleon: insight that the higher and the terrible man necessarily belong together. The "man" reinstated; the woman again accorded her due tribute of contempt and fear. Both Jacques Derrida and Gilles Deleuze were careful to point out that the primary nature of will to power is unconscious. This means that the drive to power is always already at work unconsciously, perpetually advancing the will of the one over the other.

This thus creates the state of things in the observable or conscious world still operating through the same tension.

Derrida is careful not to confine the will to power to human behavior, the mind, metaphysics, nor physical reality individually. It is the underlying life principle inaugurating all aspects of life and behavior, a self-preserving force. A sense of entropy and the eternal return, which are related, is always indissociable from the will to power.

The eternal return of all memory initiated by the will to power is an entropic force again inherent to all life. Opposed to this interpretation, the "will to power" can be understood or misunderstood to mean a struggle against one's surroundings that culminates in personal growth, self-overcoming, and self-perfection, and assert that the power held over others as a result of this is coincidental.

Thus Nietzsche wrote: My idea is that every specific body strives to become master over all space and to extend its force its will to power and to thrust back all that resists its extension. But it continually encounters similar efforts on the part of other bodies and ends by coming to an arrangement "union" with those of them that are sufficiently related to it: thus they then conspire together for power.

And the process goes on. While a rock, for instance, does not have a conscious or unconscious "will", it nevertheless acts as a site of resistance within the "will to power" dynamic.

Moreover, rather than 'dominating over others', "will to power" is more accurately positioned in relation to the subject a mere synecdoche , both fictitious and necessary, for there is "no doer behind the deed," see On the Genealogy of Morals and is an idea behind the statement that words are "seductions" within the process of self-mastery and self-overcoming.

The Will to Power: An Attempted Transvaluation of All Values. Book I and II

The "will to power" is thus a "cosmic" inner force acting in and through both animate and inanimate objects. Not just instincts but also higher level behaviors even in humans were to be reduced to the will to power. This includes both such apparently[ need quotation to verify ] harmful acts as physical violence , lying, and domination, on one hand, and such apparently non-harmful acts as gift-giving, love , and praise on the other—though its manifestations can be altered significantly, such as through art and aesthetic experience.

In Beyond Good and Evil , he claims that philosophers' "will to truth" i.

Other Nietzschean interpreters dispute the suggestion that Nietzsche's concept of the will to power is merely and only a matter of narrow, harmless, humanistic self-perfection. They suggest that, for Nietzsche, power means self-perfection as well as outward, political, elitist, aristocratic domination. Nietzsche, in fact, explicitly and specifically defined the egalitarian state-idea as the embodiment of the will to power in decline: To speak of just or unjust in itself is quite senseless; in itself, of course, no injury, assault, exploitation, destruction can be 'unjust,' since life operates essentially, that is in its basic functions, through injury, assault, exploitation, destruction and simply cannot be thought of at all without this character.

One must indeed grant something even more unpalatable: that, from the highest biological standpoint, legal conditions can never be other than exceptional conditions, since they constitute a partial restriction of the will of life, which is bent upon power, and are subordinate to its total goal as a single means: namely, as a means of creating greater units of power.

His interpretation of Nietzsche's will to power was concerned with the individual patient's overcoming of the superiority- inferiority dynamic.Do we hear nothing as yet of the noise of gravediggers who are burying God?

Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks — about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. Wallflower Press, Are compassion, goodness, mercy, indulgence, fellowship, love, something that can be denounced only as weakness?

There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by virtue of its appeal to all of us. It is best understood as an irrational force, found in all individuals, that can be channeled toward different ends. Nietzsche's Metaethics Nietzsche holds that moral i.

Give me a sign.

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